Advertisement

Oecologia

, Volume 75, Issue 3, pp 386–393 | Cite as

Gas exchange and SO2 fumigation studies with irrigated and unirrigated field grown Diplacus aurantiacus and Heteromeles arbutifolia

  • C. J. Atkinson
  • W. E. Winner
  • H. A. Mooney
Original Papers

Summary

Experiments were performed on an evergreen (Heteromeles arbutifolia) and a drought deciduous shrub (Diplacus aurantiacus) to determine, 1) whether approaches for evaluating SO2 absorption by leaves in laboratory studies could be extended to field studies, 2) the effects of irrigation on metabolism and SO2 responses of the study species during a season when water was limiting, 3) to interpret SO2 responses on the basis of SO2 flux rates. Laboratory-developed approaches for evaluating SO2 absorption by leaves were found to be suitable for use with field plants, despite field plants having lower gas exchange rates. Supplementing water during times of deficit did not override all the biological and environmental factors that limited photosynthesis (A). Irrigation increased leaf longevity of D. aurantiacus, and stomatal conductance to water vapour (g); g was also shown to increase with H. arbutifolia on irrigation. Irrigation profoundly influenced plant response to SO2. Unwatered D. aurantiacus had only a small g and therefore a reduced capacity to absorb SO2 and respond to SO2; which resulted in apparent SO2 avoidance. Water availability and SO2 both affect g and therefore, SO2 flux rates into the mesophyll. Different ambient SO2 concentrations of 8.3 and 26.2 μmol m-3 (0.2 and 0.6 ppm) were both found to result in similar SO2 flux rates into the leaf, due to variations in g in response to water availability. Changes in g did not always result in changes in A, implying that carbon fixation may be little affected by some SO2 exposures, although still potentially affecting such processes as maintenance of leaf water potential, transpirational cooling and nutrient uptake.

Key words

Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. Heteromeles arbutifolia (Ait.) Roem. Gas exchange Irrigation Sulphur dioxide 

Abbreviations

SO2

sulphur dioxide

A

net photosynthesis

E

transpiration

g

stomatal conductance to water vapour

ΔW

Water vapour mole fraction difference between the leaf and air

WUE

water use efficiency (mol CO2 uptake per mol H2O transpired)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atkinson CJ, Winner WE (1987) Gas exchange characteristics of Heteromeles arbutifolia during fumigation with sulphur dioxide. New Phytol 106:423–436Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson CJ, Winner WE, Mooney HA (1986) A field portable gas exchange system for measuring carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange rates of leaves during fumigation with SO2. Plant Cell Environ 9:711–719Google Scholar
  3. Field C, Berry JA, Mooney HA (1982) A portable system for measuring carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of leaves. Plant Cell Environ 5:179–186Google Scholar
  4. Field C, Merino J, Mooney HA (1983) Compromises between water-use efficiency and nitrogen-use efficiency in five species of Californian evergreen. Oecologia (Berlin) 60:384–389Google Scholar
  5. Mann LK, McLaughin SB, Shriner DS (1980) Seasonal physiological responses of white pine under chronic air pollution stress. Environ Exp Bot 20:99–105Google Scholar
  6. Miszalski Z, Ziegler H (1980) Available SO2 — a parameter for SO2-toxicity. Phytopathol Z 97:144–147Google Scholar
  7. Mooney HA, Chu C (1983) Stomatal responses to humidity of coastal and interior populations of a California shrub. Oecologia (Berlin) 57:148–150Google Scholar
  8. Norby RJ, Kozlowski TT (1981) Relative sensitivity of three species of woody plants to SO2 at high and low exposures temperature. Oecologia (Berlin) 51:33–36Google Scholar
  9. Norby RJ, Kozlowski TT (1982) The role of stomata in sensitivity of Betula papyrifera Marsh. seedlings to SO2 at different humidities. Oecologia (Berlin) 53:34–39Google Scholar
  10. Tingey DT, Thutt GL, Gumpertz ML, Hogsett WE (1982) Plant water stress influences ozone sensitivity of bean plants. Agric Environ 7:243–254Google Scholar
  11. Winner WE, Mooney HA (1980a) Ecology of SO2 resistance. I. Effects of fumigations on gas exchange of deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Oecologia (Berlin) 44:290–295Google Scholar
  12. Winner WE, Mooney HA (1980b) Ecology of SO2 resistance. II. Photosynthetic changes of shrubs in relation to SO2 absorption and stomatal behaviour. Oecologia (Berlin) 44:296–302Google Scholar
  13. Winner WE, Koch GW, Mooney HA (1982) Ecology of SO2 resistance. IV. Predicting metabolic responses of fumigated shrubs and trees. Oecologia (Berlin) 52:16–21Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. J. Atkinson
    • 1
    • 2
  • W. E. Winner
    • 1
    • 3
  • H. A. Mooney
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Science, Laboratory for Air Pollution Impact to Agriculture and ForestryVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of LancasterLancasterUK
  3. 3.Department of General ScienceOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  4. 4.Department of Biological SciencesStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations