Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 88, Issue 4, pp 354–371 | Cite as

Origin and evolution of a peraluminous silicic ignimbrite suite: The Violet Town Volcanics

  • John D. Clemens
  • Victor J. Wall
Article

Abstract

The Violet Town Volcanics are a 373 Ma old, comagmatic, S-type volcanic sequence mainly comprising crystal-rich intracaldera ignimbrites. Rock types vary from rhyolites to rhyodacites, all containing magmatic cordierite and garnet phenocrysts. Variation in the suite is primarily due to fractionation of early-crystallized quartz, plagioclase and biotite (plus minor accessory phases) in a high-level magma chamber prior to eruption. Early magmatic crystallization occurred at around 4 kb and 850° C with melt water contents between 2.8 and 4 wt.%. This high-temperature, markedly water-undersaturated, restite-poor, granitic magma was generated by partial melting reactions involving biotite breakdown in a dominantly quartzofeldspathic source terrain, leaving a granulite facies residue.

Table of Less Common Abbreviations Used

Pkb

pressure in kilobars

T° C

temperature in degrees Celsius

\(X_{H_2 O}^{Fl} \)

mole fraction of water in the fluid

aH2O

activity of water

Bi

biotite

Cd

cordierite

Gt

garnet

Py

pyrope

Gr

grossular

Alm

almandine

Sp

spessartine

He

hercynite

Ilm

ilmenite

Kfs

potassium feldspar

Opx

orthopyroxene

Pl

plagioclase

An

anorthite

Q

quartz

Sill

sillimanite

Ap

apatite

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arth JG (1976) Behavior of trace elements during magmatic processes — a summary of theoretical models and their application. J Res US Geol Surv 4:41–48Google Scholar
  2. Birch WD, Gleadow AJW (1974) The genesis of garnet and cordierite in acid volcanic rocks: evidence from the Cerberean Cauldron, central Victoria, Australia. Contrib Mineral Petrol 45:1–13Google Scholar
  3. Bohlen SR, Wall VJ, Boettcher AL (1981) Experimental investigation of garnet granulite equilibria. Contrib Mineral Petrol 83:52–61Google Scholar
  4. Bradshaw JD (1972) Stratigraphy and structure of the Torlesse Supergroup (Triassic-Jurassic) in the foothills of the Southern Alps near Hawarden (S 60–61), Canterbury. NZJ Geol Geophys 15:71–87Google Scholar
  5. Burnham CW (1972) The energy of explosive volcanic eruptions. Earth and Mineral Sci 1972:69–70Google Scholar
  6. Burnham CW, Ohmoto H (1980) Late stage processes of felsic magmatism. Mining Geol Spec Iss 8:1–11Google Scholar
  7. Chappell BW (1978) Granitoids of the Moonbi district, New England Batholith, eastern Australia. J Geol Soc Aust 25:267–284Google Scholar
  8. Chatillon-Colinet C, Newton RC, Perkins D III, Kleppa OJ (1983) Thermochemistry of (Fe2+, Mg) SiO3 orthopyroxene. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 47:1597–1603Google Scholar
  9. Clemens JD (1981) The origin and evolution of some peraluminous acid magmas (experimental, geochemical and petrological investigations). Unpubl Ph.D. Thesis Monash University Australia 577 pGoogle Scholar
  10. Clemens JD, Wall VJ (1979) Crystallization and origin of some “S-type” granitic magmas. BMR Rec 1979/2:10–12Google Scholar
  11. Clemens JD, Wall VJ (1981) Crystallization and origin of some peraluminous (S-type) granitic magmas. Can Mineral 19:111–132Google Scholar
  12. Clemens JD, Wall VJ, O'Neil JR, Compston W, McCullouch MT (in prep.) Isotopic constraints on the character of the source region for some high-temperature, peraluminous, S-type, granitic magmasGoogle Scholar
  13. Drake MJ, Weill DF (1975) The partition of Sr, Ba Ca Y, Eu2+, Eu3+, and other REE between plagioclase feldspar and magmatic silicate liquid: an experimental study. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:689–712Google Scholar
  14. Eichelberger JC (1978) Andesitic volcanism and crustal evolution. Nature 275:21–27Google Scholar
  15. Eichelberger JC (1981) Vesiculation of mafic magma during replenishment of silicic magma reservoirs. Nature 288:446–450Google Scholar
  16. Eichelberger JC, Gooley R (1977) Evolution of silicic magma chambers and their relationship to basaltic volcanism. In: The Earth's Crust. Am Geophys U Monogr 20:57–78Google Scholar
  17. Ferry JM, Spear FS (1978) Experimental calibration of the partitioning of Fe and Mg between biotite and garnet. Contrib Mineral Petrol 66:113–117Google Scholar
  18. Fleming CA (1970) The Mesozoic of New Zealand: chapters in the history of the Circum-Pacific Mobile Belt. J Geol Soc Lond 125:125–170Google Scholar
  19. Griffin TJ, White AJR, Chappell BW (1978) The Moruya Batholith and geochemical contrasts between the Moruya and Jindabyne Suites. J Geol Soc Aust 25:235–247Google Scholar
  20. Hensen BJ, Green DH (1973) Experimental study of the stability of cordierite and garnet in pelitic compositions at high pressures and temperatures. III. Synthesis of experimental data and geological applications. Contrib Mineral Petrol 38:151–166Google Scholar
  21. Hildreth W (1979) The Bishop Tuff: evidence for the origin of compositional zonation in silicic magma chambers. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 180:43–75Google Scholar
  22. Hine R, Williams IS, Chappell BW, White AJR (1976) Geochemical contrasts between I- and S-type granitoids of the Kosciusko Batholith. J Geol Soc Aust 25:219–234Google Scholar
  23. Kerrick DM, Darken LS (1975) Statistical thermodynamic models for ideal oxide and silicate solid solutions, with application to plagioclase. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:1431–1442Google Scholar
  24. Larsen ES, Irving J, Goyner FA, Larsen ES (3rd.) (1938) Petrologic results of a study of the minerals from the Tertiary volcanic rocks of the San Juan region, Colorado. Am Mineral 23:227–257Google Scholar
  25. Long PE (1978) Experimental determination of partition coefficients for Rb, Sr, and Ba between alkali feldspar and silicate liquid. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42:833–846Google Scholar
  26. McBirney AR (1980) Mixing and unmixing of magmas. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 7:357–371Google Scholar
  27. McCarthy TS, Hasty RA (1976) Trace element distribution patterns and their relationship to the crystallization of granitic melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 40:1351–1358Google Scholar
  28. McCarthy TS, Groves DI (1979) The Blue Tier Batholith, northeastern Tasmania: a cumulate-like product of fractional crystallization. Contrib Mineral Petrol 71:193–209Google Scholar
  29. Miller CF, Mittlefehldt DW (1982) Crystal fractionation: controlling factor of differentiation in highly felsic magma chambers? Geol Soc Am Abstr with Progr 14:565Google Scholar
  30. Newton RC, Haselton HT (1981) Thermodynamics of the garnetplagioclase-Al2SiO5-quartz geobarometer. In: Newton RC, Navrotsky A, Wood BJ (eds) Thermodynamics of Minerals and Melts. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Pattison DRM, Carmichael DM, St-Onge MR (1982) Geothermometry and geobarometry applied to early Proterozoic “S-type” granitoid plutons, Wopmay Orogen, Northwest Territories, Canada. Contrib Mineral Petrol 79:394–404Google Scholar
  32. Perkins D III (1979) Application of new thermodynamic data to mineral equilibria. Ph.D. Thesis University of Michigan, 214 pGoogle Scholar
  33. Phillips GN, Wall VJ (1980) The geology and metamorphism of the Bonnie Doon area, Victoria. Proc Roy Soc Vict 91:33–42Google Scholar
  34. Phillips GN, Wall VJ, Clemens JD (1981) Petrology of the Strathbogie batholith: a cordierite-bearing granite. Can Mineral 19:47–64Google Scholar
  35. Phillpotts JA, Schnetzler CC (1970) Phenocryst-matrix partition coefficients for K, Rb, Sr, and Ba with applications to anorthosite and basalt genesis. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 36:1131–1166Google Scholar
  36. Rice A (1981) Convective fractionation: a mechanism to provide cryptic zoning (macrosegregation), layering, crescumulates, banded tuffs and explosive volcanism in igneous processes. J Geophys Res 86:405–417Google Scholar
  37. Rice A, Eichelberger JC (1976) Convection in rhyolite magma. EOS 57:1024Google Scholar
  38. Ross CS, Smith RL (1961) Ash flow tuffs: their origin, geologic relations and identification. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 366Google Scholar
  39. Sleep NH (1974) Segretation of magma from a mostly crystalline mush. Geol Soc Am Bull 85:1225–1232Google Scholar
  40. Smith RL, Bailey BA (1966) The Bandelier Tuff: a study of ashflow eruption cycles from zoned magma chambers. Bull Volcanol 29:83–104Google Scholar
  41. Stormer JC Jr (1975) A practical two-feldspar geothermometer. Am Mineral 60:667–674Google Scholar
  42. Swanson SE (1977) Relation of nucleation and crystal growth to the development of granitic textures. Am Mineral 62:966–978Google Scholar
  43. van der Molen I, Patterson MS (1979) Experimental deformation of partially-melted granite. Contrib Mineral Petrol 70:229–218Google Scholar
  44. Vernon RH (1983) Restite, xenoliths and microgranitoid enclaves in granites. J Proc R Soc NSW 116:77–103Google Scholar
  45. Walker GPL (1972) Crystal concentration in ignimbrites. Contrib Mineral Petrol 36:135–146Google Scholar
  46. Wall VJ, Clemens JD, Compston W, McCullouch MT (1983) Evolution of the Central Victorian Upper Devonian magmatic province — a Palaeozoic Basin and Range analogue. Geol Soc Aust Abstr 9:160Google Scholar
  47. Wells PRA (1979) Chemical and thermal evolution of Archean sicilic crust, southern west Greenland. J Petrol 20:187–226Google Scholar
  48. White AJR (1979) Source rocks of granite magmas. (unpubl ms)Google Scholar
  49. White AJR, Chappell BW (1977) Ultrametamorphism and granitoid genesis. Tectonophysics 43:7–22Google Scholar
  50. White DA (1954) The geology of the Strathbogie igneous complex, Victoria. Proc Roy Soc Vict 66:25–52Google Scholar
  51. White DA (1963) Upper Devonian ash-flow tuffs in Victoria. Austral J Sci 25:415–416Google Scholar
  52. Whitney JA, Stormer JC Jr (1977a) The distribution of NaAlSi3O8 between coexisting microcline and plagioclase and its effect on geothermometric calculations. Am Mineral 62:687–691Google Scholar
  53. Whitney JA, Stormer JC Jr (1977b) Two-feldspar geothermometry, geobarometry in mesozonal granitic intrusions: three examples from the Piedmont of Georgia. Contrib Mineral Petrol 63:51–64Google Scholar
  54. Wyborn D, Chappell BW, Johnston RM (1981) Three S-type volcanic suites from the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeast Australia. J Geophys Res 86:10335–10348Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • John D. Clemens
    • 1
  • Victor J. Wall
    • 1
  1. 1.Earth Sciences DepartmentMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia

Personalised recommendations