Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Uvarovite: Stability of uvarovite-grossularite solid solution at low pressure


Uvarovite (Ca3Cr2Si3O12) forms a complete solid solution series with grossularite (Ca3Al2Si3O12) below 855 ± 5 ° C at a total pressure of 1 atm. Pure uvarovite decomposes to pwo (CaSiO3) + esk (Cr2O3) at 1385 ± 10 ° C. The incorporation of about 5 wt-% of Ca3Al2 Si3O12 component in the uvarovite structure raises the thermal stability of the garnetss to 1410 ± 5 ° C, and uvarovite95 grossularite05 melts incongruently to pwo (CaSiO3) + coreskss ((Al, Cr)2O3) + L. Pure grossularite decomposes to wo (CaSi03) + geh (Ca2Al2SiO7) + and (CaAl2Si2O8) at 855 ± 5 ° C, grossularite thermal stability is increased by incorporation of Ca3Cr2Si3O12 component by 530 ° C.

At 1280±5 ° C coreskss + L react to garss + geh + an defining an invariant tequilibrium of the CaO-Cr2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 quaternary system. Liquid reacts to garss + pwo + geh + an at 1263 ±5 ° C terminating univariant and divariant liquid relations occurring along the join Ca3Cr2Si3O12-Ca3Al2Si3O12.

The unit-cell parameter for uvarovite is 11.996(2) Å, the refractive index 1.865(3). The substitution of Cr by Al decreases a and n almost linearly toward the grossularite end member which displays a unit-cell parameter of 11.848(2) Å and a refractive index of 1.732 (1).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Arnould, M., Kabbani, M., Kien, D.Ph.: Nouvelle synthèse d l'uvarovite obtenu par frittage d'un mélange de wollastonite artificielle et d'oxide de chrome. Compt. Rend. 269, Sér. D, 4–5 (1969)

  2. Betechtin, A.G.: Über die Chromgranate des Dunitmassivs von Nischne-Tagilsk [inRussian]. Akademiku Bjeljankinu, Akademia Nauk SSSR, Festband, 68–73 (1946)

  3. Boettcher, A.L.: The system CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O at high pressure and temperature. J. Petrol. 11, 337–379 (1970)

  4. Borgström, L.H.: Mineralogische Notizen. 3. Uvarowit von Kuusjärvi. Z. Kryst. 37, 283 (1903)

  5. Boyd, F.R., England, J.L.: Pyrope. Carnegie Inst. Washington Year Book 58, 83–87 (1959)

  6. Buntig, E.N.: Phase equilibria in the system Cr2O3-Al2O3. Bur. Std. J. Research 6, 947–949 (1931)

  7. Coes, L.: High pressure minerals. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 381, 298 (1955)

  8. Dickey, J.S., Jr., Yoder, H.S., Jr., Schairer, J.F.: Chromium in silicate oxide systems. Carnegie Inst. Year Book 70, 118–122 (1970)

  9. Eskola, P.: On the chrome-minerals of Outokumpu. Bull. Comm. Geol. Finlande 7, 26–44 (1933)

  10. Ford, C.E., O'Hara, M.J.: The system MgSiO3-Ca3Al2Si3O12-H2O. Progress in Experimental Petrology. Second Progress Report of Research, supported by N.E.R.C. at Edinburgh and Manchester Universities, 1969–1971, The Natural Environment Research Council, Pub. Ser. D, No. 2, 150–152 (1972)

  11. Ford, W.E.: A study of the relations existing between the chemical, optical and other physical properties of the members of the garnet group. Am. J. Sci. 40, 33–49 (1915)

  12. Frankel, J.J.: Uvarovite garnet and South African Jade (hydrogrossular) from the Bushveld Complex, Transvaal. Am. Mineralogist 44, 565–591 (1959)

  13. Geller, S., Miller, O.E.: The synthesis of uvarovite. Am. Mineralogist 44, 445–446 (1959)

  14. Gentile, A.L., Roy, R.: Isomorphism and crystalline solubility in the garnet family. Am. Mineralogist 45, 701–711 (1960)

  15. Glasser, F.P., Osborn, E.F.: Phase equilibrium studies in the system CaO-Cr2O3-SiO2. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 41, 358–367 (1958)

  16. Grubb, P.L.C.: An unusual occurrence of diopside and uvarovite near Thetford, Quebec. Can. Mineralogist 8, 241–248 (1965)

  17. Gurney, J.J., Switzer, G.S.: The discovery of garnets closely related to diamonds in the Finsch Pipe, South Africa. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 39, 103–116 (1973)

  18. Hays, J.F.: Lime — alumina — silica. Carnegie Inst. Washington Year Book 65, 234–239 (1967)

  19. Holdaway, M.J.: Thermal stability of Al-Fe epidote as a function of fo2 and Fe content. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 37, 307–340 (1972)

  20. Hornung, G., Nixon, P.H.: Chemical variations in the knorringite-rich garnets. In: Lesotho Kimberlites (P.H. Nixon, ed.), p. 122–127. Maseru: Lesotho National Development Corporation 1973

  21. Huckenholz, H.G.: Synthesis and stability of Ti-andradite. Am. J. Sci., Schairer vol. 267-A, 209–232 (1969)

  22. Huckenholz, H.G., Schairer, J.F., Yoder, H.S., Jr.: Synthesis and stability of ferri-diopside. Min. Soc. Am. Spec. Papers 2, 163–177 (1969)

  23. Huckenholz, H.G., Yoder, H.S., Jr.: Andradite stability relations in the CaSiO3-Fe2O3 join up to 30 kb. Neues Jahrb. Mineral. Abhandl. 114, 246–280 (1971)

  24. Huckenholz, H.G., Lindhuber, W., Springer, J.: The join CaSiO3-Al2O3-Fe2O3 of the CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3SiO2 quaternary system and its bearing on the formation of granditic garnets and fassaitic pyroxenes. Neues Jahrb. Mineral. Abhandl. 121, 160–207 (1974)

  25. Huckenholz, H. G., Hölzl, E., Lindhuber, W.: Grossularite, its liquidus and subsolidus relations up to 10 kbar. Neues Jahrb. Mineral. Abhandl. in press (1975)

  26. Hummel, F.A.: Synthesis of uvarovite. Amer. Mineralogist 35, 324–325 (1950)

  27. Isaaks, Th.: A study of uvarovite. Mineral. Mag. 35, 38–43 (1966)

  28. Jagitsch, R.: Über die Synthese einiger Skarnminerale aus den pulverförmigen Komponenten. Ark. Kemi 9, 319–325 (1956)

  29. Knorring, O. v.: A new occurrence of uvarovite from Northern Karelia in Finland. Mineral. Mag. 29, 594–601 (1957)

  30. Kuovo, O., Vuorelainen, Y.: Eskolaite, a new chromium mineral. Am. Mineralogist 43, 1098–1106 (1956)

  31. Malinovsky, I.G., Doroshev, A.M., Godovikov, A.A.: Stability of the series pyrope-gros-sularite-knorringite-uvarovite at 1200 ° C and 30 kbar [in Russian]. Akademia Nauk SSSR, Sibirian Branch, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Experimental Investigations to Mineralogy, 73–77 (1974)

  32. Malinovsky, I. G., Doroshev, A.M.: Stability of the garnet series uvarovite-knorringite and grossularite-uvarovite at 1200 ° C and 30 kbar [in Russian]. Akademia Nauk SSSR, Sibirian Branch, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Experimental Investigations to Mineralogy, 70–72 (1974)

  33. McConnell, D.: Refringence of garnets and hydrogarnets. Can. Mineralogist 8, 11–22 (1964)

  34. Meyer, H.O.A., Boyd, F.R.: Composition and origin of crystalline inclusions in natural diamonds. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 36, 1255–1273 (1972)

  35. Muan, A., Somiya, S.: Phase equilibrium studies in the system iron oxide-Al2O3-Cr2O3. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 42, 603–613 (1959)

  36. Newton, B.C.: Some calc-silicate equilibrium relations. Am. J. Sci. 264, 204–222 (1966)

  37. Nixon, P.H., Hornung, G.: A new chromium garnet end member, knorringite from kimberlite. Am. Mineralogist 53, 1833–1840 (1968)

  38. Novak, G.A., Gibbs, G.V.: The crystal chemistry of the silicate garnets. Am. Mineralogist 56, 791–825 (1971)

  39. Osborn, E.F., Muan, A.: Phase equilibrium diagrams of oxide systems, Plate 1, the system CaO-Al2O3-SiO2. Am. Ceram. Soc., Columbus, Ohio (1960)

  40. Prestvik, T.: Norwegian chromian ugrandite-garnets. Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway. No. 58. Norsk Geol. Tidsskr. 54, 177–182 (1974)

  41. Rankin, G.A., Wright, F.E.: The ternary system CaO-Al2O3-SiO2. Am. J. Sci. 39, 1–79 (1915)

  42. Bickwood, P.C.: On recasting analyses of garnet into end-member molecules. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 18, 175–198 (1968)

  43. Rost, F., Grigel, W.: Zur Geochemie und Genese Granat-führender Ultramafitite des mitteleuropäischen Grundgebirges. Chem. Erde 28, 91–177 (1969)

  44. Boy, D.M., Boy, R.: System CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O, VI, The grossularite-3CaO · Al2O3· 6H2O join. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 68, 1788–1789 (1957)

  45. Roy, R., Tuttle, O.F.: Investigations under hydrothermal conditions. Phys. Chem. Earth 1, 138–180 (1956)

  46. Schairer, J.F.: The system CaO-FeO-Al2O3-SiO2. I. Quenching results on five joins. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 25, 241–274 (1942)

  47. Schairer, J.F., Bowen, N.L.: The binary system CaSiO3-diopside and the relations between CaSiO3-akermanite. Am. J. Sci. 240, 725–742 (1942)

  48. Schairer, J.F.: Phase equilibria with particular reference to silicate systems. In: Physicochemical measurements at high temperatures (Bockris, J. O' M., White, J.L., and J.D. Mackenzie, eds.), p. 117–134. London: Butterworths 1959

  49. Schairer, Yoder, H.S., Jr.: Pyroxenes and related systems. Carnegie Inst. Washington Year Book 68, 202–214 (1969)

  50. Schreyer, W., Seifert, F.: High-pressure phases in the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O. Am. J. Sci., Schairer vol. 267-A, 407–443 (1969)

  51. Schmulikowski, K.: Differentiation of eclogites and its possible causes. Lithos 1, 89–101 (1968)

  52. Shepherd, E.S., Rankin, G.A.: The binary systems of alumina with silica, lime, and magnesia (with optical study by F.E. Wright). Am. J. Sci. 28, 293–333 (1909)

  53. Snow, B.B.: Equilibrium relationships on the liquidus surface in part of the MnO-Al2O3- SiO system. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 26, 11 (1943)

  54. Sobolev, N.V., Lavrent'yev, Y.G., Pokilenko, N.P., Usova, L.V.: Chrome-rich garnets from the kimberlites of Yakutia and their paragenesis. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 40, 39–52 (1973)

  55. Sobolev, N.V., Lavrent'yev, Y.G., Pospelova, L.I., Sobolev, V.S.: Chrome-pyrope in diamonds from Yakutia. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 189, 162–165 (1969)

  56. Swanson, H.G., Isaaks, Th., Cook, M.I., Evans, E.H., Groot, J.: Standard X-ray diffraction patterns. Nat. Bur. Std. Circ. 539, (10), 17 (1960)

  57. Tröger, W.E.: Die Granatgruppe: Beziehungen zwischen Mineralchemismus und Gesteins-art. Neues Jahrb. Mineral. Abhandl. 93, 1–44 (1959)

  58. Willemse, J., Bensch, J.J.: Inclusions of original carbonate rocks in gabbro and norite of the eastern part of the Bushveld complex. Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Africa 67, 1–87 (1964)

  59. Yoder, H.S., Jr.: Stability relations of grossularite. J. Geol. 58, 221–253 (1950)

  60. Yoder, H.S.: Grossularite. Carnegie Inst. Washington Year Book 53, 121 (1953)

  61. Yoder, H. S., Chinner, G.A.: Grossularite-pyrope-water system at 10000 bars. Carnegie Inst. Washington Year Book 59, (1960)

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Huckenholz, H.G., Knittel, D. Uvarovite: Stability of uvarovite-grossularite solid solution at low pressure. Contr. Mineral. and Petrol. 49, 211–232 (1975).

Download citation


  • Refractive Index
  • Solid Solution
  • Thermal Stability
  • Mineral Resource
  • Total Pressure