Advertisement

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 97, Issue 1, pp 31–42 | Cite as

A Nd and Sr isotopic study of the Ivrea zone, Southern Alps, N-Italy

  • H. Voshage
  • J. C. Hunziker
  • A. W. Hofmann
  • A. Zingg
Article

Abstract

The Ivrea zone represents a tilted cross section through deep continental crust. Sm-Nd isotopic data for peridotites from Baldissero and Balmuccia and for a suite of gabbros from the mafic formation adjacent to the Balmuccia peridotite provide evidence for an event of partial melting 607±19 Ma ago in an extended mantle source with ɛ 607 Nd =+0.4±0.3. The peridotites are interpreted as the corresponding melt residue, the lower part of the mafic formation as the complementary melts which underwent further differentiation immediately after extraction. The Finero body represents a complex with layers of phlogopite peridotite, hornblende peridotite, and amphibole-rich gabbro. The isotopic signatures fall into two groups: (1) highly radiogenic Nd and low-radiogenic Sr characterize the phlogopite-free, amphibole-rich rocks, whereas (2) low-radiogenic Nd and highly radiogenic Sr is found in ultramafics affected by “phlogopite metasomatism”. Phlogopite metasomatism in the Ivrea zone is dated by a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron yielding 293±13 Ma. It was fed by K-rich fluids which were probably derived from metasediments. The high initial ɛ 293 Nd value of about +7.5 for phlogopite-free samples indicates a high time-integrated Sm/Nd ratio in the Finero protolith 293 Ma ago. Sm-Nd analyses of metapelites from the paragneiss series yield Proterozoic “crustal residence ages” of 1.2 to 1.8 Ga. Internal Sm-Nd isochrons for three garnetiferous rocks show that closure of garnet at temperatures around 600° C or even lower occurred about 250 Ma ago.

Keywords

Continental Crust Isochron Ivrea Zone Rock Isochron Crustal Residence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ashwal LD, Wooden JL (1983) Sr and Nd isotope geochronology, geologic history, and origin of the Adirondack anorthosite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 47:1875–1885Google Scholar
  2. Ben Othman D, Polvé M, Allègre CJ (1984) Nd-Sr isotopic composition of granulites and constraints on the evolution of the lower continental crust. Nature 307:510–515Google Scholar
  3. Berckhemer H (1968) Topographie des “Ivrea-Körpers” abgeleitet aus seismischen und gravimetrischen Daten. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 48:235–246Google Scholar
  4. Bertolani M (1968a) Fenomeni di trasformazione granulitica nella formazione basica Ivrea-Verbano. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 48:21–30Google Scholar
  5. Bertolani M (1968b) La petrografia della Valle Strona (Alpi Occidentali Italiane). Schweiz Mineral Petrog Mitt 48:695–732Google Scholar
  6. Boriani A (1982/83) The medium grade — high grade transition in the regional metamorphism: an example from the Ivrea-Verbano zone (Italy). Rend Soc Ital Mineral Petrol 38:543–548Google Scholar
  7. Boriani A, Sacchi R (1973) Geology of the junction between the Ivrea-Verbano and Strona Ceneri zones. Mem Ist Geol Mineral Univ Padova 28Google Scholar
  8. Boriani A, Colombo A, Origoni Giobbi E, Peyronel Pagliani G (1975) The “Appinite suite” of Massiccio dei Laghi (Northern Italy) and its relationship to the regional metamorphism. Rend Soc Ital Mineral Petrol 30:893–917Google Scholar
  9. Boudier F, Nicolas A (1972) Fusion partielle gabbroique dans la lherzolite de Lanzo (Alpes Piemontaises). Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 52:39–56Google Scholar
  10. van Breemen D, Hawkesworth CJ (1980) Sm-Nd isotopic study of garnets and their metamorphic host rocks. Trans Soc Edinburgh Earth Sci 71:97–102Google Scholar
  11. Brooks C, Hart SR, Wendt I (1972) Realistic use of two-error regression treatments as applied to Rb-Sr data. Rev Geophys Space Phys 10:551–577Google Scholar
  12. Brunner R (1973) PDP-8 for geochronology. Decus, European Proceedings 1973:53–56Google Scholar
  13. Capedri S (1971) Sulle rocce della formazione basica Ivrea-Verbano. 2. Petrografia delle granuliti e rocce derivate affioranti nelle Val Mastallone (Vercelli) e loro evolutione petrogenetica. Mem Soc Geol Ital 10:277–312Google Scholar
  14. Capedri S, Garuti G, Rivalenti G, Rossi A (1977) The origin of the Ivrea-Verbano basic formation — Pyroxenitic and gabbroic mobilisates as products of partial melting of mantle peridotite. Neues Jahrb Mineral Mh 1977:168–179Google Scholar
  15. Carlson RW, Hunter DR, Barker F (1983) Sm-Nd age and isotopic systematics of the bimodal suite, ancient gneiss complex, Swaziland. Nature 305:701–704Google Scholar
  16. Cawthorn RG (1975) The amphibole peridotite — metagabbro complex Finero, northern Italy. J Geol 83:437–454Google Scholar
  17. Cliff RA, Gray CM, Huhma H (1983) A Sm-Nd isotopic study of the South Harris igneous complex, the outer Hebrides. Contrib Mineral Petrol 82:91–98Google Scholar
  18. Coltorti M, Siena F (1984) Mantle tectonite and fractionate peridotite at Finero (Italian Western Alps). Neues Jahrb Mineral Abh 149:227–244Google Scholar
  19. DePaolo DJ, Wasserburg GJ (1976) Nd isotopic variations and petrogenetic models. Geophys Res Lett 3:249–252Google Scholar
  20. Ernst WG (1981) Petrogenesis of eclogites and peridotites from the Western and Ligurian Alps. Am Mineral 66:443–472Google Scholar
  21. Exley RA, Sills JD, Smith JV (1982) Geochemistry of micas from the Finero spinel lherzolite, Italian Alps. Contrib Mineral Petrol 81:59–63Google Scholar
  22. Frey FA (1982) Rare earth elements in upper mantle rocks. In: Henderson P (ed) Rare earth elements geochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 153–204Google Scholar
  23. Frost CD, O'Nions RK (1984) Nd evidence for Proterozoic crustal development in the Belt-Purcell Supergroup. Nature 312:53–56Google Scholar
  24. Garuti G, Friolo R (1978/79) Textural features and olivine fabrics of peridotites from the Ivrea-Verbano zone (Italian Western Alps). Mem Ist Soc Geol Univ Padova 33:111–125Google Scholar
  25. Garuti G, Sinigoi S (1978) Occurrence of phlogopite in the peridotite of Balmuccia: a preliminary note. Neues Jahrb Mineral Mh 12:549–553Google Scholar
  26. Garuti G, Rivalenti G, Rossi A, Siena F, Sinigoi S (1980) The Ivrea-Verbano mafic ultramafic complex of the Italian Western Alps: discussion of some petrological problems and a summary. Rend Soc Ital Mineral Petrol 36:719–749Google Scholar
  27. Giese P (1968) Die Struktur der Erdkruste im Bereich der Ivrea-Zone. Ein Vergleich verschiedener seismischer Interpretationen und der Versuch einer petrographisch-geologischen Deutung. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 48:261–284Google Scholar
  28. Goldstein SL, O'Nions RK, Hamilton PJ (1984) A Sm-Nd isotopic study of atmospheric dusts and particulates from major river systems. Earth Planet Sci Lett 70:221–236Google Scholar
  29. Humphries FJ, Cliff RA (1982) Sm-Nd dating and cooling history of Scourian granulites, Sutherland. Nature 295:515–517Google Scholar
  30. Hunziker JC (1974) Rb-Sr and K-Ar age determination and the alpine tectonic history of the western Alps. Mem Ist Geol Mineral Univ Padova 31:1–54Google Scholar
  31. Hunziker JC, Zingg A (1980) Lower palaeozoic amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism in the Ivrea Zone. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 60:181–213Google Scholar
  32. Hunziker JC, Zingg A (1982) Zur Genese der ultrabasischen Gesteine der Ivrea Zone. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 62:483–486Google Scholar
  33. Jacobsen SB, Wasserburg GJ (1978) Interpretation of Nd, Sr and Pb isotope data from Archean migmatites in Lofoten-Vesteralen, Norway. Earth Planet Sci Lett 41:245–253Google Scholar
  34. Jacobsen SB, Wasserburg GJ (1980) Sm-Nd evolution of chondrites. Earth Planet Sci Lett 50:139–155Google Scholar
  35. Jäger E (1962) Rb-Sr age determinations on micas and total rocks from the Alps. J Geophys Res 67:5293–5306Google Scholar
  36. Jäger E, Faul H (1960) Altersbestimmungen an einigen Schweizer Gesteinen und dem Granit von Baveno. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 40:10–12Google Scholar
  37. Jäger E, Niggli E, Wenk E (1967) Rb-Sr-Altersbestimmungen an Glimmern der Zentralalpen. Beitr Geol Karte Schweiz, NF 134, p 67Google Scholar
  38. Jagoutz E, Palme H, Baddenhausen H, Blum K, Cendales M, Dreibus G, Spettel B, Lorenz V, Wänke H (1979) The abundances of major, minor and trace elements in the earth's mantle as derived from primitive ultramafic nodules. Proc Lunar Planet Sci Conf 10:2031–2050Google Scholar
  39. Köppel V (1974) Isotopic U-Pb ages of monazites and zircons from the crust-mantle transition and adjacent units in the Ivrea and Ceneri zones. Contrib Mineral Petrol 43:55–70Google Scholar
  40. Köppel V, Grünenfelder M (1978/79) Monazite and zircon U-Pb ages from the Ivrea and Ceneri zones. Mem Ist Sci Geol Univ Padova 33:257Google Scholar
  41. Kruhl JH, Voll G (1976) Fabrics and metamorphism from the Monte Rosa root zone into the Ivrea zone near Finero, southern margin of the Alps. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 56:627–633Google Scholar
  42. Krummenacher D, Evernden JF, Vuagnat M (1960) Sur l'age absolu de la peridotite micacee de Finero (zone d'Ivrea). Archives Sci Geneva 13:369–373Google Scholar
  43. Langmuir CH, Vocke RD, Hanson GN, Hart SR (1978) A general mixing equation with applications to Icelandic basalts. Earth Planet Sci Lett 37:380–392Google Scholar
  44. Lensch G (1968) Die Ultramafitite der Zone von Ivrea und ihre geologische Interpretation. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 48:91–102Google Scholar
  45. Lensch G (1971) Die Ultramafitite der Zone von Ivrea. Ann Univ Sarav 9:5–146Google Scholar
  46. Lensch G, Rost F (1972) Kelyphite peridotites in the central Ivrea zone between Val d'Ossala and Val Strona. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 52:237–250Google Scholar
  47. Loubet M, Allègre CJ (1982) Trace elements in orogenic lherzolites reveal the complex history of the upper mantle. Nature 298:809–814Google Scholar
  48. Loubet M, Shimizu N, Allègre CJ (1975) Rare earth elements in Alpine peridotites. Contrib Mineral Petrol 53:1–12Google Scholar
  49. Mazzucchelli M (1983) The upper zone of the Ivrea-Verbano layered complex (Italian Western Alps). Neues Jahrb Mineral Abh 146:101–116Google Scholar
  50. Mazzucchelli M, Siena F (1986) Geotectonic significance of the metabasites of the kinzigitic series, Ivrea-Verbano zone (Western Italian Alps). Tschermaks Mineral Pertrogr Mitt 35:99–116Google Scholar
  51. McCulloch MT, Chappel BW (1982) Nd isotopic characteristics of S and I type granites. Earth Planet Sci Lett 58:51–64Google Scholar
  52. McCulloch MT, Wasserburg GJ (1978) Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr chronology of continental crust formation. Science 200:1003–1011Google Scholar
  53. McDowell FW, Schmid R (1968) Potassium-argon ages from the Valle d'Ossola section of the Ivrea-Verbano zone. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 48:205–210Google Scholar
  54. Mercier JCC, Nicolas A (1975) Textures and fabrics of uppermantle peridotites as illustrated by xenoliths from basalts. J Petrol 16:454–487Google Scholar
  55. Miller RG, O'Nions RK (1984) The provenance and crustal residence ages of British sediments in relation to paleogeographic reconstructions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 68:459–470Google Scholar
  56. O'Nions RK, Hamilton PJ, Hooker PJ (1983) A Nd isotope investigation of sediments related to crustal development in the British Isles. Earth Planet Sci Lett 63:229–240Google Scholar
  57. Ottonello G, Ernst WG, Joron JL (1984) Rare earth and 3d transition element geochemistry of peridotitic rocks. I. Peridotites from the Western Alps. J Petrol 25:343–372Google Scholar
  58. Patchett PJ, Bridgwater D (1984) Origin of continental crust of 1.9-1.7 Ga age defined by Nd isotopes in the Ketilidian terrain of South Greenland. Contrib Mineral Petrol 87:311–318Google Scholar
  59. Pin C (1986) Datation U-Pb sur zircons à 285 Ma du complexe gabbro-dioritique du Val Sesia — Val Mastallone et âge tardihercynien du métamorphisme granulitique de la zone Ivrea-Verbano (Italie). C R Acad Sci Paris 303:827–830Google Scholar
  60. Pin C, Sills JD (1986) Petrogenesis of layered gabbros and ultramafic rocks from Val Sesia, the Ivrea zone, NW Italy: trace element and isotope geochemistry. In: Dawson JB, Carswell DA, Hall J, Wedepohl KH (eds) The nature of the lower continental crust. Geol Soc Spec Publ 24:231–249Google Scholar
  61. Pin C, Vielzeuf D (1983) Granulites and related rocks in Variscan median Europe: a dualistic interpretation. Tectonophysics 93:47–74Google Scholar
  62. Polvé M (1983) Les isotopes du Nd et du Sr dans les lherzolites orogéniques: contribution à la détermination de la structure et de la dynamique du manteau supérieur. Thèse, Université de ParisGoogle Scholar
  63. Polvé M, Allègre CJ (1980) Orogenic lherzolite complexes studied by 87Rb-87Sr: a clue to understand the mantle convection processes? Earth Planet Sci Lett 51:71–93Google Scholar
  64. Richard P, Shimizu N, Allègre CJ (1976) 143Nd/144Nd, a natural tracer: an application to oceanic basalts. Earth Planet Sci Lett 31:269–278Google Scholar
  65. Rivalenti G, Garuti G, Rossi A (1975) The origin of the Ivrea-Verbano basic formation (western Italian Alps). Whole rock geochemistry. Boll Soc Geol Ital 94:1149–1186Google Scholar
  66. Rivalenti G, Garuti G, Rossi A, Siena F, Sinigoi S (1980) Existence of different peridotite types and of a layered igneous complex in the Ivrea zone of the Western Alps. J Petrol 22:127–153Google Scholar
  67. Rivalenti G, Garuti G, Rossi A, Siena F, Sinigoi S (1981) Chromian spinel in the Ivrea-Verbano layered igneous complex, Western Alps, Italy. Tschermaks Mineral Petrogr Mitt 29:33–53Google Scholar
  68. Rivalenti G, Rossi A, Siena F, Sinigoi S (1984) The layered series of the Ivrea-Verbano igneous complex, Western Alps, Italy. Tschermaks Mineral Petrogr Mitt 33:77–99Google Scholar
  69. Sanders IS, van Calsteren PWC, Hawkesworth CJ (1984) A Grenville Sm-Nd age for the Glenelg eclogite in north-west Scotland. Nature 312:439–440Google Scholar
  70. Schmid R (1967) Zur Petrographie und Struktur der Zone Ivrea-Verbano zwischen Val d'Ossola and Val Grande. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 47:935–1117Google Scholar
  71. Schmid R (1978/79) Are the metapelites of the Ivrea-Verbano zone restites? Mem Sci Geol Univ Padova 33:67–69Google Scholar
  72. Schmid R, Wood BJ (1976) Phase relationships in granulitic metapelites from the Ivrea-Verbano zone (Northern Italy). Contrib Mineral Petrol 54:255–279Google Scholar
  73. Shervais JW (1979) Thermal emplacement model for the Alpine lherzolite massif at Balmuccia, Italy. J Petrol 20:795–820Google Scholar
  74. Sighinolfi GP, Gorgoni C (1978) Chemical evolution of high grade metamorphic rocks: anatexis and remotion of material from granulite terrains. Chem Geol 22:157–176Google Scholar
  75. Sills JD (1984) Granulite facies metamorphism in the Ivrea zone, NW Italy. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 64:169–191Google Scholar
  76. Sills JD, Tarney J (1984) Petrogenesis and tectonic significance of amphibolites interlayered with metasedimentary gneisses in the Ivrea Zone, southern Alps, NW Italy. Tectonophysics 107:187–206Google Scholar
  77. Sinigoi S, Comin-Chiaramonti P, Alberti AA (1980) Phase relations in the partial melting of the Baldissero spinel-lherzolite (Ivrea-Verbano zone, Western Alps, Italy). Contrib Mineral Petrol 75:111–121Google Scholar
  78. Sinigoi S, Comin-Chiaramonti P, Demarchi G, Siena F (1983) Differentiation of partial melts in the mantle: evidence from the Balmuccia peridotite, Italy. Contrib Mineral Petrol 82:351–359Google Scholar
  79. Steck A, Tièche JC (1976) Carte géologique de l'antiforme péridotique de Finero avec des observations sur les phases de déformation et de recristallisation. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 56:501–512Google Scholar
  80. Steiger RH, Jäger E (1977) Subcommission on geochronology: convention on the use of decay constants in geo- and cosmochronology. Earth Planet Sci Lett 36:359–362Google Scholar
  81. Streckeisen A (1973) Plutonic rocks. Classification and nomenclature recommended by the IUGS Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks. Geotimes 18, 10:26–32Google Scholar
  82. Voshage H, Hunziker JC, Hofmann AW (1984) Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr evidence for the evolution of the Ivrea zone. Terra Cognita 4:205Google Scholar
  83. White WM, Patchett PJ (1984) Hf-Nd-Sr isotopes and incompatible element abundances in island arcs: implications for magma origins and crust-mantle evolution. Earth Planet Sci Lett 67:167–185Google Scholar
  84. Windrim DP, McCulloch MT (1986) Nd and Sr isotopic systematics of central Australian granulites: chronology of crustal development and constraints on the evolution of lower continental crust. Contrib Mineral Petrol 94:289–303Google Scholar
  85. Wüthrich H (1965) Rb-Sr-Altersbestimmungen am alpin-metamorph überprägten Aarmassiv. Schweiz Mineral Petrograph Mitt 45:875–971Google Scholar
  86. York D (1966) Least squares fitting of a straight line. Can J Phys 44:1079–1084Google Scholar
  87. Zindler A, Hart SR, Brooks C (1981) The Shabogamo intrusive suite, Labrador: Sr and Nd isotopic evidence for contaminated mafic magmas in the Proterozoic. Earth Planet Sci Lett 54:217–235Google Scholar
  88. Zindler A, Staudigel H, Hart SR, Endres R, Goldstein S (1983) Nd and Sr isotopic study of a mafic layer from Ronda ultramafic complex. Nature 304:226–230Google Scholar
  89. Zingg A (1980) Regional metamorphism in the Ivrea zone (Southern Alps, N-Italy). Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 60:153–173Google Scholar
  90. Zingg A (1983) The Ivrea and Strona-Ceneri zones (southern Alps, Ticino and N-Italy) — A review. Schweiz Mineral Petrogr Mitt 63:361–392Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Voshage
    • 1
  • J. C. Hunziker
    • 2
  • A. W. Hofmann
    • 1
  • A. Zingg
    • 3
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für ChemieMainzFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Abteilung für IsotopengeologieUniversität BernBernSwitzerland
  3. 3.Geologisches InstitutUniversität BaselBaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations