Advertisement

Pflügers Archiv

, Volume 424, Issue 5–6, pp 494–502 | Cite as

Muscle fiber types of women after resistance training — Quantitative ultrastructure and enzyme activity

  • Naishu Wang
  • Robert S. Hikida
  • Robert S. Staron
  • Jean-Aime Simoneau
Heart, Circulation, Respiration and Blood; Environmental and Exercise Physiology

Abstract

Muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle taken before and after 18 weeks of resistance training were compared by preparing frozen cross sections for electron microscopy and using adjacent sections for fiber typing by myosin ATPase activity. Quantitative ultrastructural changes were observed in histochemically-identified muscle fiber types of twelve young women who underwent the training. The percentage of type IIB fibers decreased and IIA fibers increased. The cross-sectional area of all major fiber types increased with training. The absolute volume of myofibrils, intermyofibrillar space, and mitochondria increased with training for most major fiber types (type I, IIA and IIAB), but the relative volume percentages were not significantly changed because of corresponding fiber hypertrophy. Mean mitochondrial size for types I and IIA and myofibril size for types IIC and IIB increased significantly with training. The capillary number per fiber and density did not change with training. Activity levels were measured for selected glycolytic and oxidative enzymes. Cytochrome oxidase and hexokinase increased significantly with training, while creatine kinase, citrate synthase, phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase enzymes were not significantly altered. The results suggest that this type of high-repetition resistance training causes the intracellular components of all fiber types to increase proportionally with an increase in fiber size. In addition, the enzyme analysis indicates the muscle as a whole may increase its oxidative phosphorylation capacity in conjunction with the decreased percentage of type IIB fibers.

Key words

Skeletal muscle hypertrophy Muscle stereology Exercise adaptations 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Andersen P (1975) Capillary density in skeletal muscle of man. Acta Physiol Scand 95: 203–205Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andersen P, Henriksson J (1977) Capillary supply of the quadriceps femoris muscle of man: adaptive response to exercise. J Physiol (Lond) 270: 677–690Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bergstrom J (1962) Muscle electrolytes in man. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 14 [Suppl 68]: 1–110Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brooke MH, Kaiser KK (1970) Three “myosin ATPase” systems: the nature of their pH lability and sulfhydryl dependence. J Histochem Cytochem 18: 670–672Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cureton KJ, Collins MA, Hill DW, McElhannon FM (1988) Muscle hypertrophy in men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 20: 338–344Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Enoka RM (1988) Muscle strength and its development. New perspectives. Sports Med 6: 146–168Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Federico A, Manneschi L, Paolini E (1987) Biochemical difference between intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondria from human muscle. J Inherited Metab Dis 10 [Suppl 2]: 242–246Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hakkinen K, Alen M, Komi PV (1985) Changes in isometric force- and relaxation-time, electromyographic and muscle fibre characteristics of human skeletal muscle during strength training and detraining. Acta Physiol Scand 125: 573–585Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hikida RS (1987) Quantitative ultrastructure of histochemically identified avian skeletal muscle fiber types. Anat Rec 218: 128–135Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hoppeler H (1986) Exercise-induced ultrastructural changes in skeletal muscle. Int J Sports Med 7: 187–204Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hoppeler H, Luthi P, Claassen H, Weibel ER, Howald H (1973) The ultrastructure of the normal human skeletal muscle. A morphometric analysis on untrained men, women, and well-trained orienteers. Pflügers Arch 344: 217–232Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Howald H, Hoppeler H, Claassen H, Mathieu O, Straub R (1985) Influences of endurance training on the ultrastructural composition of the different muscle fiber types in humans. Pflügers Arch 403: 369–376Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Howald H, Pette D, Simoneau JA, Uber A, Hoppeler H, Cerre telli P (1990) Effects of chronic hypoxia on muscle enzyme activities. Int J Sports Med 11 [Supp 1]: S10-S14Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lexell J, Taylor CC (1991) A morphometrical comparison of right and left whole human vastus lateralis muscle: how to reduce sampling errors in biopsy techniques. Clin Physiol 11: 271–276Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Luthi JM, Howald H, Claassen H, Rosler K, Vock P, Hoppeler H (1986) Structural changes in skeletal muscle tissue with heavy-resistance exercise. Int J Sports Med 7: 123–127Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    MacDougall JD (1986) Morphological changes in human skeletal muscle following strength training and immobilization. In: Jones NL, McCartney N, McComas AJ (eds) Human muscle power. Human kinetics, Champaign, pp 269–285Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    MacDougall JD, Sale DG, Moroz JR, Elder GCB, Sutton JR, Howald H (1979) Mitochondrial volume density in human skeletal muscle following heavy resistance training. Med Sci Sports 11: 164–166Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    McDougall JD, Sale DG, Alway SE, Sutton JR (1983) Muscle fiber number in biceps brachii in bodybuilders and control subjects. J Appl Physiol 57: 1399–1403Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Martin TP (1987) Predictable adaptations by skeletal muscle mitochondria to different exercise training workloads. Comp Biochem Physiol [B] 88: 273–276Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    O'Shea JP, Wegner J (1981) Power weight training and the female athlete. Physician Sports Med 9: 109–120Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prince FP, Hikida RS, Hagerman FC, Staron RS, Allen WH (1981) A morphometric analysis of human muscle fibers with relation to fiber types and adaptation to exercise. J Neurol Sci 49: 165–179Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reichmann H, Srihari T, Pette D (1983) Ipsi- and contralateral fibre transformations by cross-reinnervation. A principle of symmetry. Pflügers Arch 397: 202–208Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Riley DA, Slocum GR (1988) Contraction-free, fume-fixed longitudinal sections of fresh frozen muscle. Stain Technol 63: 93–96Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sahlin K (1985) NADH in human skeletal muscle during short-term intense exercise. Pflügers Arch 403: 193–196Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sahlin K, Harris RC, Hultman E (1979) Resynthesis of creatine phosphate in human muscle after exercise in relation to intramuscular pH and availability of oxygen. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 39: 551–558Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Saltin B, Gollnick PD (1983) Skeletal muscle adaptability: significance for metabolism and performance. In: Peachey LD, Adrian RH, Geiger SR (eds) Handbook of physiology. Skeletal muscle. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, pp 555–631Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schantz P (1982) Capillary supply in hypertrophied human skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol Scand 114: 635–637Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Simoneau JA, Bouchard C (1989) Human variation in skeletal muscle fiber type proportion and enzyme activities. Am J Physiol 257: E567-E573Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Simoneau JA, Lortie G, Boulay MR, Marcotte M, Thibault MC, Bouchard C (1985) Human skeletal muscle fiber type alteration with high-intensity intermittent training. Eur J Appl Physiol 54: 250–253Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Staron RS (1991) Correlation between myofibrillar ATPase activity and myosin heavy chain composition in single human muscle fibers. Histochemistry 96: 21–24Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Staron RS, Pette D (1990) The multiplicity of myosin light and heavy chain composition in muscle fibers. In: Pette D (ed) The dynamic state of muscle fibers. DeGruyter, Berlin, pp 315–328Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Staron RS, Hikida RS (1992) Histochemical, biochemical, and ultrastructural analyses of single human muscle fibers, with special reference to the C-fiber population. J Histochem Cytochem 40: 563–568Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Staron RS, Hikida RS, Hagerman FC (1983) Reevaluation of human muscle fast-twitch subtypes: evidence for a continuum. Histochemistry 78: 33–39Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Staron RS, Hikida RS, Hagerman FC, Dudley GA, Murray TF (1984) Human skeletal muscle fiber type adaptability to various workloads. J Histochem Cytochem 32: 146–152Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Staron RS, Malicky ES, Leonardi MJ, Falkel JE, Hagerman FC, Dudley GA (1990) Muscle hypertrophy and fast fiber type conversions in heavy resistance-trained women. Eur J Appl Physiol 60: 71–79Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Staron RS, Leonardi MJ, Karapondo DL, Malicky ES, Falkel JE, Hagerman FC, Hikida RS (1991) Strength and skeletal muscle adaptations in heavy resistance-trained women following detraining and retraining. J Appl Physiol 70: 631–640Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tesch PA, Thorstensson A, Kaiser D (1984) Muscle capillary supply and fiber type characteristrics in weight and powerlifters. J Appl Physiol 56: 35–38Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vollestad NH, Blom PCS (1985) Effect of varying exercise intensity on glycogen depletion in human muscle fibres. Acta Physiol Scand 125: 395–405Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Weibel ER (1979) Practical methods for biological morphometry (Stereological methods series vol 1). London, Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wyss M, Smeltink J, Wevers RA, Wallimann T (1992) Mitochondrial creatine kinase: a key enzyme of aerobic energy metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta 1102: 119–166Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naishu Wang
    • 1
  • Robert S. Hikida
    • 1
  • Robert S. Staron
    • 1
  • Jean-Aime Simoneau
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesOhio UniversityAthensUSA
  2. 2.Physical Activity Sciences LaboratoryLaval UniversitySte-FoyCanada

Personalised recommendations