Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 100, Issue 2, pp 139–155 | Cite as

Origin of ultramafic xenoliths containing exsolved pyroxenes from Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii

  • Wendy A. Bohrson
  • David A. Clague
Article

Abstract

Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii, is best known for the abundant and varied xenoliths included in the historic 1800 Kaupulehu alkalic basalt flow. Xenoliths, which range in composition from dunite to anorthosite, are concentrated at 915-m elevation in the flow. Rare cumulate ultramafic xenoliths, which include websterite, olivine websterite, wehrlite, and clinopyroxenite, display complex pyroxene exsolution textures that indicate slow cooling. Websterite, olivine websterite, and one wehrlite are spinel-bearing orthopyroxene +olivine cumulates with intercumulus clinopyroxene +plagioclase. Two wehrlite samples and clinopyroxenite are spinel-bearing olivine cumulates with intercumulus clinopyroxene+orthopyroxene + plagioclase. Two-pyroxene geothermometry calculations, based on reconstructed pyroxene compositions, indicate that crystallization temperatures range from 1225° to 1350° C. Migration or unmixing of clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene stopped between 1045° and 1090° C. Comparisons of the abundance of K2O in plagioclase and the abundances of TiO2 and Fe2O3in spinel of xenoliths and mid-ocean ridge basalt, and a single 87Sr/ 86Sr determination, indicate that these Hualalai xenoliths are unrelated to mid-ocean ridge basalt. Similarity between the crystallization sequence of these xenoliths and the experimental crystallization sequence of a Hawaiian olivine tholeiite suggest that the parental magma of the xenoliths is Hualalai tholeiitic basalt. Xenoliths probably crystallized between about 4.5 and 9 kb. The 155°–230° C of cooling which took place over about 120 ka — the age of the youngest Hualalai tholeiitic basalt — yield maximum cooling rates of 1.3×10−3–1.91×10−3 °C/yr. Hualalai ultramafic xenoliths with exsolved pyroxenes crystallized from Hualalai tholeiitic basalt and accumulated in a magma reservoir located between 13 and 28 km below sealevel. We suspect that this reservoir occurs just below the base of the oceanic crust at about 19 km below sealevel.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albee AL, Ray L (1970) Correction factors for electron probe analysis of silicates, oxides, carbonates, phosphates, and sulfates. Anal Chem 42:1408–1414Google Scholar
  2. Beeson MH, Jackson ED (1970) Origin of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths at Salt Lake Crater, Oahu. Mineral Soc Amer Spec Pap 3:95–112Google Scholar
  3. Campbell JF, Erlandson D (1979) OTEC-1 anchor site survey. Haw Inst Geophys Report Hawaii, 55 pGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen C-H, Presnall DC, Stearn RJ (1985) Origin of xenoliths in the 1800–1801 Kaupulehu flow on Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 63:1138Google Scholar
  5. Clague DA, Jackson ED, Wright TL (1980) Petrology of Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii: implication for mantle composition. Bull Volcanol 43–4:641–656Google Scholar
  6. Clague DA (1982) Petrology of tholeiitic basalt dredged from Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii. EOS Am Geophys Union Trans 63:1138Google Scholar
  7. Clague DA, Chen C-H (1986) Ocean crust xenoliths from Hualalai, Hawaii. Geol Soc Am Abstr with Progr 18:565Google Scholar
  8. Clague DA (1987) Hawaiian xenolith populations, magma supply rates, and development of magma chambers. Bull Volcanol 49:577–587Google Scholar
  9. Davis AS, Clague DA (1987) Geochemistry, mineralogy, and petrology of basalt from the Gorda Ridge. J Geophys Res 92:10467–10483Google Scholar
  10. Dixon JE, Clague DA, Eissen JP (1986) Gabbroic xenoliths and host ferrobasalt from the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. J Geophys Res 91:3795–3820Google Scholar
  11. Finnerty TA, Boyd FR (1978) Pressure dependent solubility of calcium in forsterite coexisting with diopside and enstatite. Carnegie Inst Wash Yearbk 77:713–717Google Scholar
  12. Green DH, Ringwood AE (1967) The genesis of basaltic magmas. Contrib Mineral Petrol 15:103–190Google Scholar
  13. Helz RT (1973) Phase relations of basalts in their melting range at PH2O=5kb as a function of oxygen fugacity. J Petrol 14:249–302Google Scholar
  14. Herzberg CT (1978) Pyroxene geothermometry and geobarometry: experimental and thermodynamic evaluation of some subsolidus phase relations involving pyroxenes in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42:945–957Google Scholar
  15. Jackson ED, Clague DA, Engleman E, Friesen WB, Norton D (1981) Xenoliths in the alkalic basalt flows from Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii. US Geol Survey Open-File Report 81-1031Google Scholar
  16. Jackson ED, Clague DA (1981) The nodule beds of 1800–1801 Kaupulehu flow, Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii. US Geol Sur Misc Field Studies Map MF-1355Google Scholar
  17. Jaeger JC (1968) Cooling and solidification of igneous rocks. In: HH Hess, A Poldervaart (eds) Basalts: The Poldervaart treastise on rocks of basaltic composition. Wiley, New York, pp 503–536Google Scholar
  18. Langenheim VAM, Clague DA (1987) The Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain- part II. Stratigraphie framework of volcanic rocks of the Hawaiian Islands. US Geol Survey Prof Pap 1350:55–84Google Scholar
  19. Lindsley DH (1983) Pyroxene thermometry. Am Mineral 68:477–493Google Scholar
  20. Moore JG, Szabo B (1986) Reef-subsidence chronology for the last half million years, Hawaii. Geol Soc Am Abstr Progr 18, No 2:159Google Scholar
  21. Moore JG (1987) Subsidence of the Hawaiian Ridge. US Geol Sur Prof Pap 1350:85–100Google Scholar
  22. Moore RB, Clague DA, Rubin M, Bohrson WA (1987) Hualalai Volcano: A preliminary summary of geologic, petrologic, and geophysical data. US Geol Survey Prof Pap 1350:571–586Google Scholar
  23. Mori T (1977) Geothermometry of spinel lherzolites. Contrib Mineral Petrol 59:261–279Google Scholar
  24. Perfit MR, Fornari DJ (1983) Geochemical studies of abyssal lavas recovered by DSRV Alvin from Eastern Galapagos Rift, Inca Transform, and Ecuador Rift 2. Phase chemistry and crystallization history. J Geophys Res 88:10530–10549Google Scholar
  25. Richter DH, Murata KJ (1961) Xenolithic nodules in the 1800–1801 Kaupulehu flow of Hualalai Volcano. US Geol Sur Prof Pap 424B:215–217Google Scholar
  26. Roedder E (1965) Liquid CO2 inclusions in olivine-bearing nodules and phenocrysts from basalts. Am ZMineral 50:1746–1782Google Scholar
  27. Ryan MP, Koyanagi RY, Fiske RS (1981) Modelling the three-dimensional structure of macroscopic magma transport systems: Application to Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. J Geophys Res 86:7111–7129Google Scholar
  28. Sen G, Presnall DC (1986) Petrogenesis of dunite xenoliths from Koolau Volcano, Oahu, Hawaii: Implications for Hawaiian volcanism. J Petrol 27:197–217Google Scholar
  29. Shibata T, DeLong SE, Walker D (1979) Abyssal tholeiites from the oceanographer fracture zone. Contrib Mineral Petrol 70:89–102Google Scholar
  30. Sigurdsson H, Schilling JG (1976) Spinels in Mid-Atlantic Ridge basalts: Chemistry and occurrence. Earth Planet Sci Lett 29:7–20Google Scholar
  31. Stakes DS, Shervais JW, Hopson CA (1984) The volcanic-tectonic cycle of the FAMOUS and AMAR Valleys, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36°47′N): Evidence from basalt glass and phenocryst compositional variations for a steady state magma chamber beneath the Valley Midsections, AMAR 3. J Geophys Res 89:6995–7028Google Scholar
  32. Takahashi E (1980) Thermal history of lherzolite xenoliths- I. Petrology of lherzolite xenoliths from Ichinomegata crater, Oga peninsula, northeast Japan. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 44:1643–1658Google Scholar
  33. Wager LR, Brown GM, Wadsworth WJ (1960) Types of igneous cumulates. J Petrol 1:73–8Google Scholar
  34. Watts AB, ten Brink US, Buhl P, Brocher TM (1985) A multichannel seismic study of lithospheric flexure across the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain. Nature 315:105–111Google Scholar
  35. Wells PRA (1977) Pyroxene geothermometry in simple and complex systems. Contrib Mineral Petrol 62:129–139Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wendy A. Bohrson
    • 1
  • David A. Clague
    • 1
  1. 1.US Geological SurveyMenlo ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations