, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 71–78 | Cite as

The all pervasive principle of repetitious recurrence governs not only coding sequence construction but also human endeavor in musical composition

  • Susumu Ohno
  • Midori Ohno


Organisms which have evolved on this earth are governed by multitudes of periodicities; tomorrow is another today, and the next year is going to be much like this year. Accordingly, the principle of repetitious recurrence pervades every aspect of life on this earth. Thus, individual genes in the genome have been duplicated and triplicated often to the point of redundancy, and each coding sequence consists of numerous variously truncated as well as variously base-substituted copies of the original primordial building block base oligomers and their allies. This principle even appears to govern the manifestations of human intellect; musical compositions also rely on this principle of repetitious recurrence. Accordingly, coding base sequences can be transformed into musical scores using one set rule. Conversely, musical scores can be transcribed to coding base sequences of long open reading frames.


Oligomer Building Block Individual Gene Block Base Base Sequence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Corden, J. L., Cadena, D. L., Ahearn, Jr., J. M., and Dahmus, M. E.: A unique structure at the carboxyl terminus of the largest subunit of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82: 7934–7938, 1985Google Scholar
  2. DeVries, A. L.: Biological antifreeze agents in cold water fishes. Comp. Biochem. Biophysiol. 73A: 627–640, 1982Google Scholar
  3. Gitschier, J., Wood, W. I., Goralka, R. M., Wion, K. L., Chen, E. Y., Eaton, D. H., Vehar, G. A., Capon, D. J., and Lawn, R. M.: Characterization of human factor VIII gene. Nature 312: 326–330, 1984Google Scholar
  4. Klein, J. and Figueroa, F.: Evolution of the major histocompatibility complex. CRC Crit. Rev. Immunol., in press, 1986Google Scholar
  5. Martin-Zaca, D., Hughes, S. H., and Barbacid, M.: A human oncogene formed by the fusion of truncated tropomyosin protein kinase sequences. Nature 319: 743–748, 1985Google Scholar
  6. Mostov, K. E., Friedlander, M., and Blobel, G.: The receptor for transepithelial transport of IgA and IgM contains multiple immunoglobulin-like domains. Nature 308: 37–43, 1984Google Scholar
  7. Ohno, S.: Evolution by Gene Duplication, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1970Google Scholar
  8. Ohno, S.: Repeats of base oligomers as the primordial coding sequences of the primitive earth and their vestiges in modern genes. J Mol. Evol. 20: 313–321, 1984Google Scholar
  9. Ohno, S.: Immortal genes. Trends Genet. 1: 196–200, 1985Google Scholar
  10. Ohno, S. and Epplen, J.: The primitive code and repeats of base oligomers as the primordial protein-encoding sequence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80: 3391–3395, 1983Google Scholar
  11. Singer-Sam, J., Simmer, R. L., Keith, D. H., Shively, L., Teplitz, M., Itakura, K., Gartler, S. M., and Riggs, A. D.: Isolation of a cDNA clone for human X-linked 3-phosphoglycerate kinase by use of a mixture of synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80: 802–806, 1983Google Scholar
  12. Watson, H. D., Walker, N. P. C., Shaw, P. J., Bryant, T. N., Wendell, P. L., Fothergill, L. A., Perkins, R. E., Conroy, S. C., Dobson, M. J., Tuite, M. F., Kingsman, A. J., and Kingsman, S. M.: Sequence and structure of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase. EMBO J. 1: 1635–1640, 1982Google Scholar
  13. Zavala, F., Tam, J. P., Cochrane, A. H., Quakyi, I., Nassenzwieg, R. S., and Nassenzwieg, V.: Synthetic oligopeptide immunization against Plasmodium falsiparum. Science 228: 1436–1440, 1985Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susumu Ohno
    • 1
  • Midori Ohno
    • 1
  1. 1.Beckman Research Institute of The City of HopeDuarte

Personalised recommendations