Advertisement

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 99, Issue 4, pp 401–415 | Cite as

Crystal size distribution (CSD) in rocks and the kinetics and dynamics of crystallization

III. Metamorphic crystallization
  • Katharine V. Cashman
  • John M. Ferry
Article

Abstract

Crystal size distributions (CSDs) measured in metamorphic rocks yield quantitative information about crystal nucleation and growth rates, growth times, and the degree of overstepping (ΔT) of reactions during metamorphism. CSDs are described through use of a population density function n=dN/dL, where N is the cumulative number of crystals per unit volume and L is a linear crystal size. Plots of ln (n) vs. L for olivine+pyroxene and magnetite in high-temperature (1000° C) basalt hornfelses from the Isle of Skye define linear arrays, indicating continuous nucleation and growth of crystals during metamorphism. Using the slope and intercept of these linear plots in conjunction with growth rate estimates we infer minimum mineral growth times of less than 100 years at ΔT<10° C, and nucleation rates between 10−4 and 10−1/cm3/s. Garnet and magnetite in regionally metamorphosed pelitic schists from south-central Maine have CSDs which are bell-shaped. We interpret this form to be the result of two processes: 1) initial continuous nucleation and growth of crystals, and 2) later loss of small crystals due to annealing. The large crystals in regional metamorphic rocks retain the original size frequency distribution and may be used to obtain quantitative information on the original conditions of crystal nucleation and growth. The extent of annealing increases with increasing metamorphic grade and could be used to estimate the duration of annealing conditions if the value of a rate constant were known. Finally, the different forms of crystal size distributions directly reflect differences in the thermal histories of regional vs. contact metamorphosed rocks: because contact metamorphism involves high temperatures for short durations, resulting CSDs are linear and unaffected by annealing, similar to those produced by crystallization from a melt; because regional metamorphism involves prolonged cooling from high temperatures, primary linear CSDs are later modified by annealing to bell shapes.

Keywords

Magnetite Olivine Metamorphic Rock Linear Array Growth Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson MP, Grest GR, Srolovitz DJ (1985) Grain growth in three dimensions: A lattice model. Scripta Metallurgica 19:225–230Google Scholar
  2. Baronnet A (1982) Ostwald ripening in solutions. The case of calcite and mica. Estudios Geol 38:185–198Google Scholar
  3. Carlson WD (1983) Aragonite-calcite nucleation kinetics: an application and extension of Avrami transformation theory. J Geol 91:57–71Google Scholar
  4. Cashman KV (1986) Crystal size distributions in igneous and metamorphic rocks. PhD Thesis, Johns Hopkins UniversityGoogle Scholar
  5. Cashman KV, Marsh BD (1988) Crystal size distributions (CSD) in rocks and the kinetics and dynamics of crystallization II. Makaopuhi lava lake. Contrib Mineral Petrol (in press)Google Scholar
  6. Chai BHT (1974) Mass transfer of calcite during hydrothermal recrystallization. In: Hofman AW, Giletti BJ, Yoder HS, Yund RA (eds) Geochemical Transport and Kinetics. Carnegie Inst., Washington, pp 205–218Google Scholar
  7. Chai BHT (1975) The kinetics and mass transfer of calcite during hydrothermal recrystallization process. PhD Thesis, Yale UniversityGoogle Scholar
  8. DeHoff RT, Rhines FL (1968) Quantitative Microscopy. McGraw-Hill Book, New York, p 422Google Scholar
  9. DeHoff RT (1986) Problem solving using quantitative stereology. In: Vander Voort GF (ed) Applied Metallography, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp 89–99Google Scholar
  10. Doherty RD (1983) Diffusive phase transformations in the solid state. In: Cahn RW, Haasen P (eds) Physical Metallurgy. North-Holland Physics Publishing, Amsterdam pp 933–1030Google Scholar
  11. Donaldson CH (1985) A comment on crystal shapes resulting from dissolution in magmas. Mineral Mag 49:129–132Google Scholar
  12. Edmunds EM, Atherton MP (1971) Polymetamorphic evolution of garnet in the Fanad Aureole. Donegal, Eire. Lithos 4:148–161Google Scholar
  13. Erlich R, Vogel TA, Weinberg B, Kamilli DC, Byerly G, Richter H (1972) Textural variation in petrogenetic analysis. Geol Soc Amer Bull 83:665–676Google Scholar
  14. Exner HE, Lukas HL (1971) The experimental verification of the stationary Wagner-Lifshitz distribution of coarse particles. Metallography 4:325–338Google Scholar
  15. Fabbri AG (1984) Image Processing of Geological Data. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York pp 244Google Scholar
  16. Ferry JM (1980) A comparative study of geothermometers and geobarometers in pelitic schists from south-central Maine. Amer Mineral 65:720–732Google Scholar
  17. Ferry JM (1982) A comparative geochemical study of pelitic schists and metamorphosed carbonate rocks from south-central Maine, USA. Contrib Mineral Petrol 80:59–72Google Scholar
  18. Ferry JM (1984) A biotite isograd in south central Maine, USA: Mineral reactions, fluid transfer, and heat transfer. J Petrol 25:871–893Google Scholar
  19. Ferry JM, Mutti LJ, Zuccala JG (1987) Contact metamorphism/hydrothermal alteration of Tertiary basalts from the Isle of Skye, northwest Scotland. Contrib Mineral Petrol 95:166–181Google Scholar
  20. Fischmeister H, Grimvall G (1973) Ostwald ripening — a survey. In: Kuczynski GC (ed) Sintering and Related Phenomena. Mat Sci Res Vol 6, pp 119–149Google Scholar
  21. Flinn D (1969) Grain contacts in crystalline rocks. Lithos 2:361–370Google Scholar
  22. Galwey AK, Jones KA (1963) An attempt to determine the mechanism of a natural mineral-forming reaction from examination of the products. J Chem Soc London: 5681–5686Google Scholar
  23. Galwey AK, Jones KA (1966) Crystal size frequency distribution of garnets in some analysed metamorphic rocks from Mallaig, Inverness, Scotland. Geol Mag 103:143–152Google Scholar
  24. Griggs DT, Paterson MS, Heard HC, Turner FJ (1960) Annealing recrystallization in calcite crystals and aggregates. In: Rock Deformation. Geol Soc Amer Memoir 79:21–37Google Scholar
  25. Hilliard JE (1965) Applications of quantitative metallography in recrystallization studies. In: Recrystallization, grain growth and textures. ASM, Chapman and Hill, London, pp 267–294Google Scholar
  26. Hollister LS (1966) Garnet zoning: An interpretation based on the Rayleigh fractionation model. Science 154:1647–1651Google Scholar
  27. James PF (1982) Nucleation in glass-forming systems — a review. In: Simmons JH, Uhlmann DR, Beall GR (eds) Nucleation and crystallization in glasses, advances in ceramics 4:1048Google Scholar
  28. Joesten R (1983) Grain growth and grain-boundary diffusion in quartz from the Christmas Mountains (Texas) contact aureole. Amer J Sci 283 A:233–254Google Scholar
  29. Jones KA, Galwey AK (1964) A study of possible factors concerning garnet formation in rocks from Ardara, Co. Donegal, Ireland, Geol Mag 101:76–92Google Scholar
  30. Jones KA, Galwey AK (1966) Size distribution, composition and growth kinetics of garnet crystals of some metamorphic rocks from west of Ireland. Quart Jl Geol Soc London 122:29–44Google Scholar
  31. Jones KA, Morgan GJ, Galwey AK (1972) The significance of the size distribution function of crystals formed in metamorphic reactions. Chem Geol 9:137–143Google Scholar
  32. Jones KA, Wolfe MJ, Galwey AK (1975) A theoretical consideration of the kinetics of calcite recrystallization produced by two basalt dykes in Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland. Contrib Mineral Petrol 51:283–296Google Scholar
  33. Jurewicz SR, Watson EB (1985) The distribution of partial melt in a granitic system: The application of liquid phase sintering theory. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 49:1109–1121Google Scholar
  34. Kirkpatrick RJ (1977) Nucleation and growth of plagioclase, Makaopuhi and Alae lava lakes, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Geol Soc Amer Bull 88:78–84Google Scholar
  35. Kraus G (1962) Gefüge, Kristallgrößen und Genese des Kristallgranites I im Vorderen Bayerischen Wald. N Jb Miner Abh 97:357–434Google Scholar
  36. Kretz R (1966) Grain-size distribution for certain metamorphic minerals in relation to nucleation and growth. J Geol 74:147–173Google Scholar
  37. Kretz R (1969) On the spatial distribution of crystals in rocks. Lithos 2:39–66Google Scholar
  38. Kretz R (1973) Kinetics of the crystallization of garnet at two localities near Yellowknife. Can Mineral 12:1–20Google Scholar
  39. Kretz R (1974) Some models for the rate of crystallization of garnet in metamorphic rocks. Lithos 7:123–131Google Scholar
  40. Krumbein WC (1935) Thin-section mechanical analysis of indurated sediments. J Geol 43:482–496Google Scholar
  41. Kuczynski GC (1980) Minimum entropy production rate and Ostwald ripening. In: Kuczynski GC (ed) Sintering Processes. Mat Sci Res 13:39–49Google Scholar
  42. Lifshitz IM, Slyozov VV (1961) The kinetics of precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions. Jl Phys Chem Solids 19:35–50Google Scholar
  43. Markworth AJ (1970) The kinetic behavior of precipitate particles under Ostwald ripening conditions. Metallography 3:197–208Google Scholar
  44. Marsh BD (1988) Crystal size distribution (CSD) in rocks and the kinetics and dynamics of crystallization I. Theory. Contrib Mineral Petrol 99:277–291Google Scholar
  45. Martin JW, Doherty RD (1976) Stability of Microstructure in Metallic Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 298Google Scholar
  46. Masuda Y, Watanabe R (1980) Ostwald ripening processes in the sintering of metal powders. In: Kuczynski GC (ed) Sintering Processes. Mat Sci Res 13:3–21Google Scholar
  47. McLellan EL (1983) Contrasting textures in metamorphic and anatectic migmatites: an example from the Scottish Caledonides. J Metamorphic Geol 1:241–262Google Scholar
  48. Norton D, Knight J (1977) Transport phenomena in hydrothermal systems: Cooling plutons. Amer J Sci 277:937–981Google Scholar
  49. Ostwald W (1900) Über die vermeintliche Isomeric des roten und gelben Quecksilberoxyds und die Oberflächenspannung fester Körper. Z Phys Chem Stoechiom Verwandtschaftslehre 34:495–503Google Scholar
  50. Randolph AD, Larson MA (1971) Theory of Particulate Processes, Academic Press, New York, p 251Google Scholar
  51. Russ JC (1986) Practical Stereology. Plenum Press, New York, p 185Google Scholar
  52. Saltykov SA (1967) The determination of the size distribution of particles in an opaque material from a measurement of the size distribution of their sections. In: Elias H (ed) Stereology, Proc 1nd Int Cong for Stereology, Springer, New York, p 163Google Scholar
  53. Spry A (1969) Metamorphic Textures, Pergamon Press, p 350Google Scholar
  54. Thompson AB, England PC (1984) Pressure-temperature-time paths of regional metamorphism II. Their influence and interpretation using mineral assemblages in metamorphic rocks. J Petrol 25:929–955Google Scholar
  55. Tullis J, Yund RA (1982) Grain growth kinetics of quartz and calcite aggregates. Jl Geol 90:301–318Google Scholar
  56. Underwood EE (1970) Quantitative Stereology. Addison-Wesley Publ Co, Massachusetts, p 274Google Scholar
  57. Vander Voort GF (1984) Metallography: Principles and Practice. McGraw-Hill Book, New York, pp 410–509Google Scholar
  58. Wagner C (1961) A note on the origin of ophitic texture in the chilled olivine gabbro of the Skaergaard intrusion. Geol Mag 98:353–366Google Scholar
  59. Wagner C (1961) Theorie der Alterung von Niederschlägen durch Umlosen. Z Elektrochemie 65:581–591Google Scholar
  60. Walther JV, Wood BJ (1984) Rate and mechanism is prograde metamorphism. Contrib Mineral Petrol 88:246–259Google Scholar
  61. Walther JV, Wood BJ (1986) Mineral-fluid reaction rates. In: Walther JV, Wood BJ (eds) Fluid-Rock Interactions During Metamorphism. Advanes in Geochemistry, Vol 5 Springer, New York, pp 194–211Google Scholar
  62. Wicksell SD (1925) The Corpuscle Problem 1. A mathematical study of a biometric problem. Biometrika 17:84Google Scholar
  63. Winkler HGF (1949) Crystallization of basaltic magma as recorded by variation of crystals sizes in dikes. Minerals Mag 28:557–574Google Scholar
  64. Wood BJ, Walther JV (1983) Rates of hydrothermal reactions. Science 222:413–415Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katharine V. Cashman
    • 1
  • John M. Ferry
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Planetary Scienceand Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations