Geochemistry of braunite and associated phases in metamorphosed non-calcareous manganese ores of India
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- Bhattacharyya, P.K., Dasgupta, S., Fukuoka, M. et al. Contr. Mineral. and Petrol. (1984) 87: 65. doi:10.1007/BF00371403
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In the metamorphosed manganese oxide ores of India, braunite is ubiquitous in all assemblages from chlorite to sillimanite grades. Chemical analyses of braunite from different prograde assemblages confirm the presence of a fixed R2+ (=Mn2++Mg+Ca) SiO3 molecule in the mineral. Element partitioning between coexisting braunite and bixbyite indicates a near-ideal mixing of Fe+3/ -Mn+3 in the phases. This also indicates that braunite became relatively ferrian while equilibrating with associated phases such as bixbyite, hollandite and jacobsite during prograde reactions. Petrogenetic studies show that as a general trend, prograde lower oxide phases appeared by deoxidation of higher oxide phases. But braunite, a more reduced phase than bixbyite, appeared early from deoxidation of pyrolusite in presence of quartz. Bixbyite could appear later from the reacting pyrolusite-braunite-quartz assemblage. Inferred mineral reaction paths and the general trend of pro-grade deoxidation reactions suggest that the composition of ambient fluid phase was internally buffered during metamorphism.