Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 253–275 | Cite as

Contributions to the mineral chemistry of Hawaiian rocks

II. Feldspars and interstitial material in rocks from Haleakala and West Maui volcanoes, Maui, Hawaii
  • Klaus Keil
  • R. V. Fodor
  • T. E. Bunch
Article

Abstract

Feldspar phenocrysts, microphenocrysts, groundmass feldspar, interstitial material of feldspar composition, and residual SiO2-K2O-rich glass in 24 rocks of the tholeiitic, alkalic, and nephelinic suites from Haleakala and West Maui volcanoes, Maui, Hawaii, were analyzed quantitatively with the electron microprobe. Rocks studied include tholeiite, olivine tholeiite, oceanite, alkalic olivine basalt, alkalic basalt, hawaiite, mugearite, trachyte, basanite, and basanitoid. Results and conclusions: i) In all rocks studied, An decreases and Or increases from phenocrysts to microphenocrysts to groundmass feldspar to interstitial material of feldspar composition. ii) Phenocrysts occur in rocks of the tholeiitic and alkalic suites and, in spite of differences in bulk rock compositions, overlap in composition. iii) Groundmass feldspar in rocks of the tholeiitic suite are nearly identical in composition; the same is true for rocks of the nephelinic suite. However, in the highly differentiated alkalic suite, groundmass feldspar composition ranges from labradorite to sanidine; i.e. the higher the bulk rock CaO, the higher is the An content, and the higher the bulk K2O, the higher is the Or content. iv) In general, rocks with phenocrysts have groundmass feldspar less An-rich than those without phenocrysts. v) In rocks of the tholeiitic suite, normative feldspar approaches modal feldspar. However, in rocks of the alkalic and nephelinic suites, normative feldspar, because of the presence of highly alkalic interstitial material and the absence of nepheline in the mode but its presence in the norm, is drastically different from modal feldspar. vi) Hawaiites contain labradorite and not andesine, as per definition, and mugearite contains andesine and not oligoclase, as groundmass feldspar. In fact, when considering phenocrysts and interstitial material of feldspar composition, hawaiites range from bytownite to sanidine and mugearite from andesine to sodic sanidine, but normative feldspar plots in the andesine field for hawaiites and the oligoclase field for mugearite. vii) Rocks of the three suites can be distinguished on the basis of Or and An in groundmass feldspar, the presence of thin rims of groundmass composition of phenocrysts of rocks of the alkalic suite, and the presence of interstitial material of anorthoclase to sanidine composition in rocks of the alkalic and nephelinic suites. iix) Rocks transitional between the tholeiitic and alkalic suites are observed and are characterized by transitional mineral compositions.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Keil
    • 1
  • R. V. Fodor
    • 1
  • T. E. Bunch
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geology and Institute of MeteoriticsThe University of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.Space Sciences DivisionNASA Ames Research CenterMoffett FieldUSA

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