Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 36–64 | Cite as

The iron-titanium oxides of salic volcanic rocks and their associated ferromagnesian silicates

  • Ian S. E. Carmichael


The co-existing microphenocrysts of magnetite and ilmenite together with the ferromagnesian silicates in salic volcanic rocks have been analysed with the electron microprobe. The temperatures and oxygen fugacities of the oxide equilibration have been estimated from the curves of Buddington and Lindsley (1965). The co-existing ferromagnesian silicate phenocrysts are either iron-rich olivine, or orthopyroxene or biotite and amphibole; for each of these groups of phenocrysts, the oxide equilibration data are specific and fall on three distinct curves, parallel to experimental oxygen buffer curves. Many of the investigated rhyolites were quenched at temperatures near 900°C, which may represent liquidus temperatures for those with sparse phenocrysts, and also the intrusion temperature of water-undersaturated granites. The composition of the biotite phenocrysts, which are Al-poor and Ti-rich, taken in conjunction with the oxide data, suggest that two Lassen dacites precipitated biotite at a water fugacity of approximately 400 bars. The composition of the later crystallizing ferromagnesian silicates, particularly the pyroxenes which show a wide range in Fe/Mg ratio, is strongly influenced by the prior crystallization of the oxide phases. If the biotite phenocrysts are typical of acid liquids, then they are incapable of generating by fractionation a peraluminous residual liquid; rather they would tend to make a liquid peralkaline.


Magnetite Olivine Ilmenite Oxygen Fugacity Oxygen Buffer 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian S. E. Carmichael
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geology and GeophysicsUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeley

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