Advertisement

Bioprocess Engineering

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 83–92 | Cite as

Dichloromethane removal from waste gases with a trickle-bed bioreactor

  • S. Hartmans
  • J. Tramper
Originals

Abstract

A 66 dm3 trickle-bed bioreactor was constructed to assess the possibilities of eliminating dichloromethane from industrial waste gases. The trickle-bed bioreactor was filled with a randomly-stacked polypropylene packing material over which a liquid phase was circulated. The pH of the circulating liquid was externally controlled at a value of 7 and the temperature was maintained at 25 °C. The packing material was very quickly covered by a dichloromethane-degrading biofilm which thrived on the dichloromethane supplied via the gas phase. The biological system was very stable and not sensitive to fluctuations in the dichloromethane supply. Removal of dichloromethane from synthetic waste gas was possible down to concentrations well below the maximal allowable concentration of 150mg/m3 required by West-German law for gaseous emissions. At higher dichloromethane concentrations specific dichloromethane degradation rates of 200 g h−1 m−3 were possible. At very low inlet concentrations, dichloromethane elimination was completely mass transfer limited.

The gas-phase mixing could be described by a series of 10 to 7 identical ideally-mixed tanks for superficial gas velocities ranging from 150 to 450 m/h. Dichloromethane elimination with the tricklebed bioreactor was modelled using an overall mass-transfer coefficient that was dependent on the gas and liquid velocities. Masstransfer resistance within the biofilm was also accounted for. Using the model, elimination efficiencies were predicted which were very close to the experimentally observed values.

Keywords

Dichloromethane Packing Material Liquid Velocity Inlet Concentration Maximal Allowable Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bird, R. B.; Stewart, W. E.; Lightfoot, E. N.: Transport phenomena. New York: John Wiley and Sons 1960Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brink, L. E. S.; Tramper, J.: Modelling the effects of mass transfer of propene epoxidation of immobilized Mycobacterium cells: Pseudo-one-substrate conditions and negligible product inhibition. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 8 (1986) 281–288Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brunner, W. B.; Staub, D.; Leisinger, T.; Bacterial degradation of dichloromethane. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40 (1980) 950–958Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Etzensperger, M.; Thoma, S.; Petrozzi, S.; Dunn, I. J.: Phenol degradation in a three-phase biofilm fluidized sand bed reactor. Bioproc. Eng. 4 (1989) 175–181Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    de Gooijer, C. D.; Hens, H. J. H.; Tramper, J.: Optimum design for a series of continuous stirred tank reactors containing immobilized biocatalyst beads obeying intrinsic Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Bioproc. Eng. 4 (1989) 153–158Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gälli, R.; Leisinger, T.: Specialized strains for the removal of dichloromethane from industrial waste. Cons. Recycling 8 (1985) 91–100Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gälli, R.: Biodegradation of dichloromethane in waste water using a fluidized bed bioreactor. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27 (1987) 206–213Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gossett, J. M.: Measurement of Henry's law constant for C1 and C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons. Environ. Sci. Technol. (1987) 202–208Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guicherit, R.; Schulting, F. L.: The occurrence of organic chemicals in the atmosphere of the Netherlands. Sci. Total Environ. 43 (1985) 193–219Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harris, N. P.; Hansford, G. S.: A study of substrate removal in a microbial film reactor. Water Res. 10 (1976) 935–943Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hartmans, S.; de Bont, J. A. M.; Tramper, J.; Luyben, K. C. A. M.: Bacterial degradation of vinyl chloride. Biotechnol. Lett. 7 (1985) 383–388Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hoehn, R. C.; Ray, A. D.: Effects of thickness on bacterial film. Journal Water Pollution Control Federation 45 (1973) 2302–2320Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klecka, G. M.: Fate and effects methylene chloride in activated sludge. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44 (1982) 701–707Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kohler-Staub, D.; Leisinger, T.: Dichloromethane dehalogenase of Hyphomicrobium sp. strain DM2. J. Bacteriol. 162 (1985) 676–681Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kohler-Staub, D.; Hartmans, S.; Gälli, R.; Suter, F.; Leisinger, T.: Evidence for identical dichloromethane dehalogenases in different methylotrophic bacteria. J Gen. Microbiol. 132 (1986) 2837–2843Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Luyben, K. C. A. M.; Tramper, J.: Optimal design for continuous tirred tank reactors in series using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Biotech. Bioeng 24 (1982) 1217–1220Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lyderson, A. L.: Mass transfer in engineering practice. Chicester: John Wiley and Sons, 1983Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ottengraf, S. P. P.: Exhaust gas purification. In: Schönborn, W. (ed) Biotechnology vol 8, Microbial degradations, pp. 425–452. Weinheim, FRG: Chemie Verlag 1986Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ranz, W. E.; Marshall, W. R.: Evaporation from drops. Chem. Eng. Progr. 48 (1952) 141–146, 173–180Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rittmann, B. E.; McCarty, P. L.: Utilization of dichloromethane by suspended and fixed film bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 39 (1980) 1225–1226Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stucki, G.; Gälli, R.; Ebershold, H. R.; Leisinger, T.: Dehalogenation of dichloromethane by cell extracts of Hyphomicrobium DM2. Arch. Microbiol. 130 (1981) 366–371Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Scholtz, R.; Wackett, L. P.; Egli, C.; Cook, A. M.; Leisinger, T.: Dichloromethane dehalogenase with improved catalytic activity isolated from a fast-growing dichloromethane-utilizing bacterium. J. Bacteriol. 170 (1988) 5698–5704Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wilke, C. R.; Chang, P.: Correlation of diffusion coefficients in dilute solutions. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 1 (1955) 264–270Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Hartmans
    • 1
  • J. Tramper
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Science Food and Bioprocess Engineering GroupWageningen Agricultural UniversityThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations