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Marine Biology

, Volume 113, Issue 1, pp 21–31 | Cite as

Does the spawning of Calanus finmarchicus in high latitudes follow a reproducible pattern?

  • Sabine Diel
  • Kurt Tande
Article

Abstract

In the spring of 1989, an experimental study of the spawning behaviour of Calanus finmarchicus was carried out in Malangen, northern Norway. Here, a single cohort of females reproduce from mid-March to May, approximately coinciding with the wax and wane of the spring phytoplankton bloom. An evaluation of population characteristics such as the proportion of adults, sex ratio, as well as gonad maturation and daily productivity of the females clearly reveals three phases within the population's reproductive period. In between incline and decline, the highest spawning rates (on average >20 eggs female-1 d-1, equivalent to 5.7% body C d-1) occur after the males have disappeared from the population and almost all females have mature gonads. During this period, the ratio of adults to copepodid Stage Vs changes from dominance of adults to that of CVs. Although first egg production was observed prior to the phytoplankton increase, it is suggested that the onset of the phytoplankton spring bloom in the first few days of April enhances the final maturation of ovaries in the females and therefore triggers the onset of the main spawning period. The clutch sizes (max. 95 eggs clutch-1) vary with the “age” of the females, while the spawning frequencies depend on the available food quantities. The overlap of an estimated minimal 4 wk spawning period for the individuals leads to a main reproductive phase for the population of ca. 3 wk, during which time mean clutch sizes and spawning frequencies are maximal (highest average clutch size: 70 eggs female-1 clutch-1, 100 to 60% of the females spawning). This period ends before the end of the phytoplankton bloom. Calculated by stepwise interpolation and summation of the mean daily egg production in the population, an average female produced ca. 600 eggs during the spring bloom in Malangen 1989. We suggest that reproduction and population development of C. finmarchicus in spring follows a reproducible pattern for a given temperature regime and non-limiting food conditions. In the case of clearly identifiable cohorts, it seems possible to trace the state of reproduction by evaluating population parameters.

Keywords

Phytoplankton Clutch Size Phytoplankton Bloom Spring Bloom Reproducible Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabine Diel
    • 1
  • Kurt Tande
    • 1
  1. 1.The Norwegian College of Fishery ScienceUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway

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