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Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 59–70 | Cite as

Transcription factor regulation of epidermal keratinocyte gene expression

  • Richard L. Eckert
  • Jean F. Welter
Article

Summary

The epidermis is a tissue that undergoes a very complex and tightly controlled differentiation program. The elaboration of this program is generally flawless, resulting in the production of an effective protective barrier for the organism. Many of the genes expressed during keratinocyte differentiation are expressed in a coordinate manner; this suggests that common regulatory models may emerge. The simplest model envisions a ‘common regulatory element’ that is possessed by all genes that are regulated together (e.g., involucrin and transglutaminase type 1). Studies to date, however, have not identified any such elements and, if anything, the available studies suggest that appropriate expression of each gene is achieved using sometime subtly and sometime grossly different mechanisms.

Recent studies indicate that a variety of transcription factors (AP1, AP2, POU domain, Sp1, STAT factors) are expressed in the epidermis and, in many cases, multiple members of several families are present (e.g., AP1 and POU domain factors). The simultaneous expression of multiple members of a single transcription factor family provides numerous opportunities for complex regulation. Some studies suggest that specific members of these families interact with specific keratinocyte genes. The best studied of these families in epidermis is the AP1 family of factors. All of the known AP1 factors are expressed in epidermis [52] and each is expressed in a specific spatial pattern that suggests the potential to regulate multiple genes. It will be important to determine the role of each of these members in regulating keratinocyte gene expression.

Finally, information is beginning to emerge regarding signal transduction in keratinocytes. Some of the early events in signal transduction have been identified (e.g., PLC and PKC activation, etc.) and some of the molecular targets of these pathways (e.g., AP1 transcription factors) are beginning to be identified. Eventually we can expect to elucidation of all of the steps between the interaction of the stimulating agent with its receptor and the activation of target gene expression.

Key words

AP1 activator protein-1 jun fus differentiation involucrin transglutaminase PKC 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard L. Eckert
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jean F. Welter
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of Reproductive BiologyCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA
  4. 4.Department of BiochemistryCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA
  5. 5.Department of OncologyCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA

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