Biological Cybernetics

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 67–77 | Cite as

Dynamic interactions between limb segments during planar arm movement

  • John M. Hollerbach
  • Tamar Flash


Movement of multiple segment limbs requires generation of appropriate joint torques which include terms arising from dynamic interactions among the moving segments as well as from such external forces as gravity. The interaction torques, arising from inertial, centripetal, and Coriolis forces, are not present for single joint movements. The significance of the individual interaction forces during reaching movements in a horizontal plane involving only the shoulder and elbow joints has been assessed for different movement paths and movement speeds. Trajectory formation strategies which simplify the dynamics computation are presented.


Torque Horizontal Plane Interaction Force Dynamic Interaction Joint Movement 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • John M. Hollerbach
    • 1
  • Tamar Flash
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

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