Marine Biology

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 93–95 | Cite as

The effects of chlorination of wastewater on fertilization in some marine invertebrates

  • D. Muchmore
  • D. Epel


Unchlorinated domestic sewage was found to be a relatively weak inhibitor of external fertilization in 3 marine invertebrates. Chlorinated sewage was a potent spermicide, active in inhibiting fertilization in concentrations of available chlorine as low as 0.05 ppm. Sodium hypochlorite in seawater duplicated the effect, and excess sodium thiosulfate terminated it. The possibility of chlorine disinfection affecting reproductive success in the vicinity of outfalls is discussed.


Sodium Wastewater Chlorine Sewage Sodium Thiosulfate 
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Literature cited

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Muchmore
    • 1
  • D. Epel
    • 2
  1. 1.Hopkins Marine StationStanford UniversityPacific GroveUSA
  2. 2.Scripps Institution of OceanographyUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA

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