Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 120, Issue 4, pp 615–625 | Cite as

Behavioral response of fish larvae to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in a stratified water column

  • D. L. Breitburg
Article

Abstract

Density stratification and respiration lead to vertical gradients in dissolved oxygen in many aquatic habitats. The behavioral responses of fish larvae to low dissolved oxygen in a stratified water column were examined during 1990–1991 with the goal of understanding how vertical gradients in dissolved oxygen may directly affect the distribution and survival of fish larvae in Chesapeake Bay, USA. In addition, the effects of low oxygen on 24-h survival rates were tested so that results of behavior experiments could be interpreted in the context of risk to the larve. Naked goby [Gobiosoma bosc (Lacépède)] and bay anchovy [Anchoa mitchilli (Valenciennes)] larvae strongly avoided dissolved oxygen concentrations <1 mg 1-1, which were lethal within 24 h at 25 to 27°C. In addition, naked goby larvae, whose behavior was tested at a wider range of dissolved oxygen concentrations, also showed a reduced preference for an oxygen concentration of 2 mg 1-1, which leads to reduced survival during long-term exposures and to reduced feeding rates. There were no major differences in behavior or survival between the two species, or between the two age classes of naked gobies tested. Results suggest that behavioral responses to oxygen gradients will play a large role in producing marked vertical changes in abundance of feeding-stage larvae in Chesapeake Bay; mortality from direct exposure to low oxygen will likely be much less important in producing vertical patterns of larval abundance.

Keywords

Dissolve Oxygen Behavioral Response Dissolve Oxygen Concentration Fish Larva Vertical Gradient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen DM, Barker DL (1990) Interannual variations in larval fish recruitment to estuarine epibenthic habitats. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 63:113–125Google Scholar
  2. Biertwell IK, Kruzynski GM (1987) A laboratory apparatus for studying the behavior of organisms in vertically stratified waters. Can J Fish aquat Sciences 44:1343–1350Google Scholar
  3. Bishai HM (1962) Reactions of larval and young salmonids to water of low oxygen concentration. J Cons perm int Explor Mer 27:167–180Google Scholar
  4. Boicourt WC (1992) Influences of circulation processes on dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay. In: Smith DE, Leffler M, Mackiernan G (eds) Oxygen dynamics in the Chesapeake Bay — a synthesis of recent research. Maryland Sea Grant College, University of Maryland, College Park, pp 7–59Google Scholar
  5. Breitburg DL (1990) Near-shore hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay: patterns and relationships among physical factors. Estuar cstl Shelf Sci 30:593–609Google Scholar
  6. Breitburg DL (1992) Episodic hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay: interacting effects of recruitment, behavior and physical disturbance. Ecol Monogr 62:525–546Google Scholar
  7. Breitburg DL (1991) Settlement patterns and presettlement behavior of the naked goby, Gobiosoma bosci, a temperate oyster reef fish. Mar Biol 109:213–221Google Scholar
  8. Breitburg DL, Steinberg N, DuBeau S, Cooksey C, Houde ED (1994) Effects of low dissolved oxygen on predation on estuarine fish larvae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 104:235–246Google Scholar
  9. Cowan JH Jr, Houde ED (1993) Relative predation potentials of seyphomedusae, ctenophores and planktivorous fish on ichthyoplankton in Chesapeake Bay. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 95:55–65Google Scholar
  10. Deubler EE Jr, Posner GS (1963) Response of postlarval flounders, Paralicthys lethostigma, to water of low oxygen concentrations. Copeia 2:312–317Google Scholar
  11. Doudoroff P, Shumway DL (1970) Dissolved oxygen requirements of freshwater fishes. FAO Fish tech Pap 86:1–291Google Scholar
  12. Gee JH, Gee PA (1991) Reactions of gobioid fishes to hypoxia: buoyancy control and aquatic surface respiration. Copeia 1:17–28Google Scholar
  13. Graham JB (1976) Respiratory adaptations of marine air-breathing fishes. In: Hughes GM (ed) Respiration of amphibious vertebrates. Academic Press, NY, pp 165–187Google Scholar
  14. Houde ED (1977) Food concentration and stocking density effects on survival and growth of laboratory-reared larvae of bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli and lined sole Achirus lineatus. Mar Biol 43:333–341Google Scholar
  15. Houde ED (1978) Critical food concentrations for larvae of three species of subtropical marine fishes. Bull mar Sci 28:395–411Google Scholar
  16. Houde ED, Lovdal JA (1984) Seasonality of occurrence, foods and food preference of ichthyoplankton in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Estuar estl Shelf Sci 18:403–419Google Scholar
  17. Houde ED, Zastrow CE (1991) Bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli. In: Funderburk SL, Jordan SJ, Mihursky JA, Riley D (eds) Habitat requirements for Chesapeake Bay living resources. Chesapeake Research Consortium, Inc. Solomons, Maryland, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  18. Howell P, Simpson D (1992) Long Island Sound finfish abundance in relation to dissolved oxygen. CT DEP Division of Conservation and Preservation, Bureau of Fisheries Marine Fisheries Program, Waterford, ConneticutGoogle Scholar
  19. Jonas R (1992) Microbial processes, organic matter and oxygen demand in the water column. In: Smith DE, Leffler M, Mackiernan G (eds) Oxygen dynamics in the Chesapeake Bay — a synthesis of recent research. Maryland Sea Grant College, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, pp 113–148Google Scholar
  20. Kemp WM, Sampou PA, Garber J, Tuttle J, Boynton WR (1992) Seasonal depletion of oxygen from bottom waters of Chesapeake Bay: roles of benthic and planktonic respiration and physical exchange processes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 85:137–152Google Scholar
  21. Kramer DL (1987) Dissolved oxygen and fish behavior. Env Biol Fish 18:81–92Google Scholar
  22. MacGregor JM (1994) Onshore-offshore pattern and variability in distribution and abundance of bay anchovy, Anchoa mitchilli, eggs and larvae in Chesapeake Bay. MS thesis, University of Maryland-CEES, College Park, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  23. Magnien RE, Austin DK, Michael BD (1993) Chemical/physical properties component Level I data report (1984–1991), Vol I. Introduction, program description, results. Maryland Dept Environ, Baltimore, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  24. Malone TC (1992) Effects of water column processes on dissolved oxygen, nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton. In: Smith DE, Leffler M, Mackierman G (eds) Oxygen dynamics in the Chesapeake Bay — a synthesis of recent research. Maryland Sea Grant College, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, pp 61–112Google Scholar
  25. Officer CB, Biggs RB, Taft JL, Cronin LE, Tyler MA, Boynton WR (1984) Chesapeake Bay anoxia: origin, development and significance. Science, NY 223:22–27Google Scholar
  26. Olney JE (1983) Eggs and early larvae of the bay anchovy, Anchoa mitchilli and the weakfish, Cynoscion regalis, in lower Chesapeake Bay with notes on associated ichthyoplankton. Estuaries 6:20–35Google Scholar
  27. Petersen JK, Petersen GI (1990) Tolerance, behaviour and oxygen consumption in the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), exposed to hypoxia. J Fish Biol 37:921–933Google Scholar
  28. Pihl L, Baden SP, Diaz RJ (1991) Effects of periodic hypoxia on distribution of demersal fish and crustaceans. Mar Biol 108:349–360Google Scholar
  29. Price KS, Flemer DA, Taft JL, Mackiernan GB, Nehlsen W, Biggs RB Burger NH, Blaylock DA (1985) Nutrient enrichment of Chesapeake Bay and its impact on the habitat of striped bass: a speculative hypothesis. Trans Am Fish Soc 14:97–106Google Scholar
  30. Rombough PJ (1988) Respiratory gas exchange, aerobic metabolism, and effects of hypoxia during early life. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ (eds) Fish physiology, Vol XI. The physiology of developing fish. A. Eggs and larvae. Academic Press, San Diego, California, pp 59–161Google Scholar
  31. Saksena VP, Joseph EB (1972) Dissolved oxygen requirements of newly hatched larvae of the striped blenny (Chasmodes bosquianus), the naked goby (Gobiosoma bosci) and the skilletfish (Gobiesox strumosus). Chesapeake Sci 13:23–28Google Scholar
  32. Sanford LP, Sellner KG, Breitburg DL (1990) Covariability of dissolved oxygen with physical processes in the summertime Chesapeake Bay. J mar Res 48:567–590Google Scholar
  33. Shenker JM, Hepner DJ, Frere PE, Currence LE, Wakefield WW (1983) Upriver migration and abundance of naked goby (Gobiosoma bosci) larvae in the Patuxent River estuary, Maryland. Estuaries 6:36–42Google Scholar
  34. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1969) Biometry — the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. WH Freeman & Co, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  35. Spoor WA (1977) Oxygen requirements of embryos and larvae of the largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (Lacépède). J Fish Biol 11:77–86Google Scholar
  36. Taft JL, Taylor WR, Hartwig EO, Loftus R (1980) Seasonal oxygen depletion in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 4:242–247Google Scholar
  37. Tood ES, Ebeling AW (1966) Aerial respiration in the long jaw mudsucker Gillichthys mirabilis (Teleostei: Gobiidae). Biol Bull mar biol Lab, Woods Hole 130:265–288Google Scholar
  38. United Stated Environmental Protection Agency (1986) Ambient water quality criteria for dissolved oxygen, Office of Water Regulations and Standards, Criteria and Standards Division. Washington DC. EPA 440/5-86-003Google Scholar
  39. Wang S-B (1992) Abundance, relative biomass, production and energy storage of bay anchovy, (Anchoa mitchilli) in Chesapeake Bay. M.S. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MarylandGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. L. Breitburg
    • 1
  1. 1.Benedict Estuarine Research CenterThe Academy of Natural SciencesSt. LeonardUSA

Personalised recommendations