Marine Biology

, Volume 114, Issue 3, pp 415–421 | Cite as

Trophic relations of the cephalopod Martialia hyadesi (Teuthoidea: Ommastrephidae) at the Antarctic Polar Front, Scotia Sea

  • P. G. Rodhouse
  • M. G. White
  • M. R. R. Jones


Samples of the squid Martialia hyadesi were collected aboard two Japanese squid-jigging vessels carrying out commercial fishing trials at the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone, north Scotia Sea, in February 1989. The dissected stomachs of 61 specimens were classified according to fullness and the contents were examined visually. Identifiable food items included fish sagittal otoliths, crustacean eyes, the lappets on euphausiid first antennule segments and cephalopod sucker rings. The most frequent items in the squid's diet were the myctophid fishes Krefftichthys anderssoni and Electrona carlsbergi, the euphausiid Euphausia superba and a hyperiid amphipod, probably Themisto gaudichaudi. A small proportion of the sample had been feeding cannibalistically. Total lengths of the fish prey were estimated from sagittal otolith size using published relationships. All fish were relatively small; 7 to 35% of squid mantle-length. However, it is possible that some heads of larger fish are discarded by the squid and so are not represented by otoliths in the stomach contents. Over the size range of squid in the sample there was no relationship between size of fish prey and size of squid. Similarly, when the squid sample was divided into groups according to prey categories: crustaceans, crustaceans+fish, fish, cephalopod, there was no evidence that dietary preference was related to squid size. The prevalence of copepod-feeding myctophids in the diet of this squid, which is itself a major prey item of some higher predators in the Scotia Sea, suggests that a previously unrecognised food chain: copepod-myctophid-M. hyadesi-higher predator, may be an important component of the Antarctic oceanic ecosystem.


Fish Prey Polar Frontal Prey Category Euphausia Superba Sagittal Otolith 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Amaratunga, T. (1983). The role of cephalopods in the marine ecosystem. F. A. O. Fish. Tech. Pap. 231: 1–452Google Scholar
  2. Antezana, T.. (1985). Euphausiids. In: Fischer W., Hureau, J. C. (eds.) F. A. O. species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Southern Ocean (Fishing Areas 48, 58, 88) (CCAMLR convention area). Vol. 1. Prepared and published with the support of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. F. A. O., Rome, p. 71–87Google Scholar
  3. Bennet, B. A. (1978). Underwater observations of the squid Illex illecebrosus in the Newfoundland inshore waters. Tech. Rep. Fish. mar. Serv., Envir. Can 833: 12.1–12.9Google Scholar
  4. Filin, A. A. Gorchinsky, K. V., Kiseleva, V. M. (1991). Biomass of myctophids in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean as estimated by acoustic surveys. Commission for the Conservation of Marine Living Resources, Hobart, Australia, p. 417–431 (SC-CAMLR-SSP/7)Google Scholar
  5. Gaevskaya, A. V. Nigmatullin, Ch.M. (1976). Biotic relationship of Ommastrephes bartramii (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) in the southern South Atlantic. Zool. Zh. 1800–1810Google Scholar
  6. Gerasimova, O. V. (1991). Feeding and food intake of Electrona carlsbergi (Tåning, 1932) Myctophidae. Commission for the Conservation of Marine Living Resources. Hobart, Australia, p. 411–416 (SC-CAMLR-SSP/7)Google Scholar
  7. Hecht, T. (1987). A guide to the otoliths of Southern Ocean fishes. S. Afr. J. antarct. Res. 17: 2–87Google Scholar
  8. Hirtle, R. W. M., DeMont, M. E., O'Dor, R. K. (1981). Feeding, growth and metabolic rates in captive short-finned squid, Illex illecebrosus, in relation to the natural population. J. Shellfish Res. 1: 187–192Google Scholar
  9. Hulley, P. A. (1981). Results of the research cruises of FRV “Walther Herwig” to South America. LVIII. Family Myctophidae (Osteichthyes, Myctophiformes). Arch. Fisch Wiss. 31: 1–300Google Scholar
  10. Hulley, P. A. (1990). Myctophidae (lanternfishes). In: Gon, O., Heemstra, P. C. (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology. Grahamstown, South Africa, p. 146–178Google Scholar
  11. Kear, A. J. (1992). The diet of Antarctic squid: comparison of conventional and serological gut contents analysis. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 156: 161–178Google Scholar
  12. Koslov A. N., Shust, K. V., Zemsky, A. V. (1991). Seasonal and interannual variability in the distribution of Electrona carlsbergi in the Southern Polar Front area (the area to the north of South Georgia is used an example). Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Living Marine Resources, Hobart, Tasmania, p. 337–367 (SC-CAMLR-SSP/7)Google Scholar
  13. Linkowski, T. B. (1983). Electrona carlsbergi (Tåning, 1932) the principal component of a deep scattering layer in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic Ocean. Pol. polar Res. (Warsaw) 4: 71–78Google Scholar
  14. Lipinski, M. (1979). Universal maturity scale for the commercially important squids. The results of maturity classification of the Illex illecebrosus (LeSueur, 1821) population for the years 1973–1977. Res. Docums int. Commn NW. Atlant. Fish. (ICNAF) 79/II/38 (Serial No. 5364): 1–490Google Scholar
  15. Lipinski, M., Linkowski, T. B. (1988). Food of the squid Ommastrephes bartramii (LeSueur, 1821) from the southe-west Atlantic Ocean. S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 6: 43–46Google Scholar
  16. Lubimova, T. G., Makarov, R. R., Shust, K. V., Lisovenko, L. A., Zemsky, V. A., Studenetskaya, I. S. (1983). Biological resources of the Southern Ocean. Major characteristics of the oceanographic and biological structure of the Southern Ocean [in Russian]. (Review series: Fishery utilization of the World Ocean). TsNIITEIRKH, USSR, USSR Ministry of Fisheries, Moscow, p. 18–32Google Scholar
  17. Merdsoy, B. (1978). In situ observations of squid. Tech. Rep. Fish. mar. Serv. Envir. Can. 833: 11.1–11.2Google Scholar
  18. Naumov, A. G., Svetlov, M. F., Kozlov, A. N., Pinskaya, I. A. (1981). Distribution and feeding of Electrona carlsbergi Tåning (Myctophidae) in the Scotia Sea [in Russian]. Vop. Ikhtiol. 21: 467–472Google Scholar
  19. Nesis, K. N. (1970). The biology of the giant squid of Peru and Chile, Dosidicus gigas. Oceanology, Wash. 10: 108–118Google Scholar
  20. Nixon, M. (1987). Cephalopod diets. In: Boyle, P. R. (ed.) Cephalopod life cycles. Vol. II. Academic Press, London, p. 201–219Google Scholar
  21. Piatkowski, U., Rodhouse, P. G., Duhamel, G. (1991). Occurrence of the cephalopod Martialia hyadesi (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) at the Kerguelen Islands in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean. Polar Biol. 11: 273–275Google Scholar
  22. Rembiszewski, J. M., Krzeptowski, M., Linkowski, T. B. (1978). Fishes (Pisces) as by-catch in fisheries of krill Euphausia superba Dana (Euphausiacea, Crustacea). Polskie Archwm Hydrobiol. 25: 677–695Google Scholar
  23. Rodhouse, P. G. (1990). Cephalopod fauna of the Scotia Sea at South Georgia: potential for commercial exploitation and possible consequences. In: Kerry, K., Hempel, G. (eds.) Ecological change and the conservation of Antarctic ecosystems. Proceedings of the 5th SCAR Symposium on Antarctic Biology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 289–298Google Scholar
  24. Rodhouse, P. G. (1991). Population structure of Martialia hyadesi (Cephalopoda: Omnastrephidae) at the Antarctic Polar Front and the Patagonian Shelf, South Atlantic. Bull. mar. Sci. 49: 404–418Google Scholar
  25. Rodhouse, P. G., Arnbom, T. R., Fedak, M. A., Yeatman, J., Murray, A. W. A. (1992). Cephalopod prey of the southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina. Can. J. Zool. 70: 1007–1015Google Scholar
  26. Rodhouse, P. G., Clarke, M. R., Murray, A. W. A. (1987). Cephalopod prey of the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans Mar. Biol. 96: 1–10Google Scholar
  27. Rodhouse, P. G., Croxall, J. P. Prince, P. A. (in press). Towards an assessment of the stock of the ommastrephid squid Martialia hyadesi in the Scotia Sea: data from predators. In: Okutani, T. (ed.) Recent advances in cephalopod fishery biology. University of Tokyo, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  28. Rodhouse, P. G., Prince, P. A., Clarke, M. R., Murray, A. W. A. (1990). Cephalopod prey of the grey-headed albatross Diomedea chrysostoma. Mar. Biol. 104: 353–362Google Scholar
  29. Rodhouse, P. G., Yeatman, J. (1990). Redescription of Martialia hyadesi Rochbrune and Mabille, 1889 (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from the Southern Ocean. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.) 56: 135–143Google Scholar
  30. Roper, C. F., Sweeney, M., Clarke, M. R. (1985). Cephalopods. In: Fischer, J. C., Hureau, J. C. (eds.) F.A.O. species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Southern Ocean (Fishing Areas 48, 58, 88) (CCAMLR convention area). Vol. 1. Prepared and published with the support of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Living Marine Resources. F. A. O., Rome, p. 117–205Google Scholar
  31. Sabourenkov, E. N. (1991). Mesopelagic fishes of the Southern Ocean — summary results. Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Living Marine Resources, Hobart, Australia, p. 433–457. (SC-CAMLR-SSP/7)Google Scholar
  32. Smith, H. K. (1983). Fishery and biology of Nototodarus gouldi (McCoy, 1888) in western Bass Strait. Mem. natn. Mus. Vict. 44: 285–290Google Scholar
  33. Squires, H. J. (1957). Squid Illex illecebrosus (LeSueur) in the Newfoundland fishing area. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 24: 1209–1217Google Scholar
  34. Uozumi, Y., Forch, E. C., Okazaki, T. (1991). Distribution and morphological characters of immature Martialia hyadesi (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) in New Zealand waters. N. Z. Jl mar. Freshwat. Res. 25: 275–282Google Scholar
  35. Williams, R. (1985). Trophic relationships between pelagic fish and euphausiids in Antarctic waters. In: Siegfried, W. R., Condy, P. R., Laws, R. M. (eds.) Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, p. 452–459Google Scholar
  36. Williams, R., McEldowney, A. (1990). A guide to the fish otoliths from waters off the Australian Antarctic Territory, Heard and Macquarie Islands. A.N.A.R.E. Res. Notes 75: 1–173Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. G. Rodhouse
    • 1
  • M. G. White
    • 1
  • M. R. R. Jones
    • 1
  1. 1.British Antarctic SurveyNatural Environment Research CouncilCambridgeEngland

Personalised recommendations