Marine Biology

, Volume 121, Issue 1, pp 127–135 | Cite as

Gametic incompatibility and genetic divergence of Pacific and Kumamoto oysters, Crassostrea gigas and C. sikamea

  • M. A. Banks
  • D. J. McGoldrick
  • W. Borgeson
  • D. Hedgecock


The biological and taxonomic separation of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) from the Kumamoto oyster C. sikamea (Amemiya, 1928) is affirmed by three concordant lines of evidence: (1) fixed differences in 2% of a mtDNA sequence coding for large subunit rRNA; (2) a genetic distance of 0.440 based on 19 allozyme loci, including 5 diagnostic loci (Aat-1, Idh-1, Idh-2, Mpi-1, Mdh-2); (3) one-way gametic incompatibility resulting in partial reproductive isolation in interspecific crosses. C. gigas sperm x C. sikamea egg fertilizations form viable hybrid offspring, but C. sikamea sperm do not fertilize C. gigas eggs. Divergence between these two species is mediated by differing peaks in the periods for gamete release and by one-way sperm/egg incompatibility. Two attempts to recover C. sikamea from its place of origin in southern Japan have yielded only individuals with the mitochondrial haplotype that characterizes C. gigas. We thus identify a crucial need for careful screening, management, and conservation of the cultivated populations of C. sikamea on the US west coast.


Large Subunit Reproductive Isolation Interspecific Cross Pacific Oyster Mitochondrial Haplotype 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahmed M (1975) Speciation in living oysters. Adv mar Biol 13:275–397Google Scholar
  2. Allen SK, Bushek D (1992) Large-scale production of triploid oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), using “stripped” gametes. Aquaculture, Amsterdam 103:241–251Google Scholar
  3. Allen SK, Downing SL, Chew KK (1989) Hatchery manual for producing triploid oysters. University of Washington, Seattle, USA (Washington Sea Grant Program, Publ WSG 89-3)Google Scholar
  4. Amemiya I (1928) Ecological studies of Japanese oysters, with special reference to the salinity of their habitats. J Coll Agric imp Univ 9:333–382Google Scholar
  5. Ayala FJ, Powell JR (1972) Allozymes as diagnostic characters of sibling species of Drosophila. Proc natn Acad Sci USA 69:1094–1096Google Scholar
  6. Ayala FJ, Tracey ML, Hedgecock D, Richmond RC (1973) Genetic differentiation during the speciation process in Drosophila. Evolution 28:576–592Google Scholar
  7. Banks MA, Waters C, Hedgecock D (1993) Discrimination between closely related Pacific oyster species (Crassostrea) via mitochondrial DNA sequences coding for large subunit rRNA. Molec mar Biol Biotechnol 2:129–136Google Scholar
  8. Berg CJ (1969) Seasonal gonadal changes of adult oviparous oysters in Tomales Bay, California Veliger 12:27–36Google Scholar
  9. Breese WP, Malouf RE (1975) Hatchery manual for the Pacific oyster. Oregon State University Sea Grant Publ No. ORESU-5-002. Agricultural Experiment Station, Corvallis, Oregon, USA (Spec Rep #443)Google Scholar
  10. Buroker NE, Hershberger WK, Chew KK (1979 a) Population genetics of the family Ostreidae. I. Intraspecific studies of Crassostrea gigas and Saccostrea commercialis. Mar Biol 54:157–169Google Scholar
  11. Buroker NE, Hershberger WK, Chew KK (1979 b) Population genetics of the family Ostreidae. II. Interspecific studies of the genera Crassostrea and Saccostrea. Mar Biol 54:171–184Google Scholar
  12. Chew KK (1979) The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in the west coast of the United States. In: Mann R (ed) Exotic species in mariculture. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, pp 54–82Google Scholar
  13. Foltz KR, Lennarz, WJ (1993) Review: The molecular basis of sea urchin gamete interactions at the egg plasma membrane. Devl Biol 158:46–61Google Scholar
  14. Grant V (1966) The selective origin of incompatibility barriers in the plant genus Gilia Am Nat 100:99–118Google Scholar
  15. Hedgecock D (1994) Does variance in reproductive success limit effective population sizes of marine organisms? In: Beaumont AR (ed) Genetics and evolution of aquatic organisms. Chapman & Hall, Lond, pp 122–134Google Scholar
  16. Hedgecock D, Banks MA, McGoldrick DJ (1993) The status of the Kumamoto oyster Crassostrea sikamea (Amemiya 1928) in U.S. commercial brood stocks. J Shellfish Res 12:215–221Google Scholar
  17. Hedgecock D, Cooper K, Hershberger W (1991) Genetic and environmental components of variance in harvest body size among pedigreed Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas from controlled crosses. J Shellfish Res 10:p 516Google Scholar
  18. Hedgecock D, Sly F (1990) Genetic drift and effective population size of hatchery-propagated stocks of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Aquaculture, Amsterdam 88:21–38Google Scholar
  19. Imai T, Sakai S (1961) Study of breeding the Japanese oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Tohoku J agric Res 12:125–171Google Scholar
  20. Lannan JE, Robinson A, Breese WP (1980) Broodstock management of Crassostrea gigas. II. Broodstock conditioning to maximize larval survival. Aquaculture, Amsterdam 21:337–345Google Scholar
  21. Leyton L, LeGuen P, Bunch D, Saling PM (1992) Regulation of mouse gamete interaction by sperm tyrosine kinase. Proc natn Acad Sci USA 89:11692–11695Google Scholar
  22. Majima R (1989) Cenozoic fossil naticidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in Japan. Bull Am Paleont 96:1–159Google Scholar
  23. Miller DJ, Macek MB, Shur BD (1992) Complementarity between sperm surface β-1,4-galactosyltransferase and egg-coat ZP3 mediates sperm-egg binding. Nature, Lond 357:589–593Google Scholar
  24. Nei M (1978) Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics, Austin, Tex 89:583–590Google Scholar
  25. Nei M (1987) Molecular evolutionary genetics. Academic Press. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Numachi R (1978) Biological research on the oyster. In: Imai T (ed) Aquaculture in shallow seas. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 115–204Google Scholar
  27. Ozaki H, Fujio Y (1985) Genetic differentiation in geographical populations of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) around Japan. Tohoku J agric Res 36:49–61Google Scholar
  28. Palumbi SR (1992) Marine speciation on a small planet. Trends Ecol Evol 7:114–118Google Scholar
  29. Quayle DB (1988) Pacific oyster culture in British Columbia. Can Bull Fish aquat Sciences 218:1–241Google Scholar
  30. Robinson AM (1992) Gonadal cycle of Crassostrea gigas kumanoto (Thunberg) in Yaquina Bay, Oregon, and optimal conditions for broodstock conditioning and larval culture. Aquaculture, Amsterdam 106:89–97Google Scholar
  31. Saiki RK, Bugawan TL, Horn GT, Mullis KB, Erlich HA (1986) Analysis of enzymatically amplified-globin and HLA-DQa DNA with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. Nature, Lond 324:163–166Google Scholar
  32. Stephano J, Gould M (1988) Avoiding polyspermy in the oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Aquaculture, Amsterdam. 73:295–307Google Scholar
  33. Woelke CE (1955) Introduction of the Kumamoto oyster Ostrea (Crassostrea) gigas to the Pacific coast. Fish Res Pap St Wash 1(3):41–50Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Banks
    • 1
  • D. J. McGoldrick
    • 1
  • W. Borgeson
    • 1
  • D. Hedgecock
    • 1
  1. 1.Bodega Marine LaboratoryThe University of California at DavisBodega BayUSA

Personalised recommendations