Marine Biology

, Volume 121, Issue 1, pp 11–21

Acanthochromis polyacanthus, a fish lacking larval dispersal, has genetically differentiated populations at local and regional scales on the Great Barrier Reef

  • P. J. Doherty
  • P. Mather
  • S. Planes
Article
  • 186 Downloads

Abstract

Acanthochromis Gill is a monotypic genus within the damselfish family Pomacentridae, erected for an unusual species [A. polyacanthus (Bleeker)] that uniquely lacks larval dispersal. Instead, offspring are reared in the parental territory, in the manner of cichlids, and fledged into the surrounding habitat. Phenotypic and genotypic variation was surveyed on the basis of body colouration and 7 polymorphic loci in 19 populations from 5 regions of the central and southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Variation in both characters was found at regional and local scales. Two colour morphs were recognised: a bicoloured morph from the three northern regions and a uniform dark morph from the two southern regions. Isozyme analysis showed a similar pattern with greatest variation between the different morphs, but also with significant variation at both regional and local scales within morphotypes. Heterozygosity was maximal in the central populations, which, together with other measures of variability, suggests a mixing of separate gene pools in this region and denies species status to the two morphotypes despite numerous fixed differences in allele frequencies between the most distant populations. The presence of fixed differences in multiple alleles between populations separated by 1000 km indicates negligible gene flow over such distances and long isolation of these gene pools. These patterns may reflect recolonisation of the GBR after the last sea-level rise by fish from two stocks. Founder effects and random drift in small populations after colonisation are probably the major sources of the local and regional variations observed at smaller spatial scales. This diversity has been maintained among populations at all scales by the very low levels of gene flow possible without an effective strategy for larval dispersal between coral reefs.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen GR (1975) Damselfishes of the South Seas. T.F.H. Publishers, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews JC, Clegg S (1989) Coral Sea circulation and transport deduced from modal information models. Deep-Sea Res 36:957–974Google Scholar
  3. Ayala FJ (1975) Genetic differentiation during the speciation process. Evolutionary Biol 8:1–78Google Scholar
  4. Barton NH, Slatkin M (1986) A quasi-equilibrium theory of the distribution of rare alleles in a subdivided population. Heredity, Lond 56:409–415Google Scholar
  5. Bell LJ, Moyer JT, Numachi K (1982) Morphological and genetic variation in Japanese populations of the anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii. Mar Biol 72:99–108Google Scholar
  6. Bonhomme F, Belkhir K, Mathieu E, Roux M (1993) Genetix-logiciel d'analyse des données en génétique des populations. Version 0.0. Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  7. Church JA (1987) East Australian Current adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef. Aust J mar Freshwat Res 38:671–683Google Scholar
  8. Davies PJ (1989) Evolution of the Great Barrier Reef-reductionist dream or expansionist vision. Proc 6th int coral Reef Symp 1:9–17 [Choat JH et al. (eds) Sixth International Coral Reef Symposium Executive Committee, Townsville]Google Scholar
  9. Doherty PJ (1983) Diel, lunar and seasonal rhythms in the reproduction of two tropical damselfishes: Pomacentrus flavicauda and P. wardi. Mar Biol 75:215–224Google Scholar
  10. Doherty PJ, Planes S, Mather P (1994) Analysis of gene flow and larval duration in seven species of coral reef fishes from the Great Barrier Reef (in preparation)Google Scholar
  11. Ehrlich PR (1975) The population biology of coral reef fishes. A Rev Ecol Syst 6:211–247Google Scholar
  12. Emigh TH (1980) A comparison of tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Biometrics 36:627–642Google Scholar
  13. Gauldie RW, Smith PJ (1978) The adaptation of cellulose acetate electrophoresis to fish enzymes. Comp Biochem Physiol 61 B:421–425Google Scholar
  14. Graves JE, Rosenblatt RH (1980) Genetic relationship of the color morphs of the serranid fish Hypoplectus unicolor. Evolution 34:240–245Google Scholar
  15. Lacson JM (1992) Minimal genetic variation among samples of six species of coral reef fishes collected at La Parguera, Puerto Rico, and Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Mar Biol 112:327–331Google Scholar
  16. Leis JM (1991) The pelagic stage of reef fishes: the larval biology of coral reef fishes. In: Sale PF (ed) The ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Academic Press, New York, pp 183–230Google Scholar
  17. Lessios HA (1992) Testing electrophoretic data for agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Mar Biol 112:517–523Google Scholar
  18. Nei M (1978) Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics, Austin, Tex 89:583–590Google Scholar
  19. Nei M, Roychoudhury AK (1974) Sampling variances of heterozygosity and genetic distance. Genetics, Austin, Tex 76:379–390Google Scholar
  20. Randall JE, Allen GR, Steene RC (1990) Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Crawford House PressGoogle Scholar
  21. Reynolds JB, Weir BS, Cockerham CC (1983) Estimation of coancestry coefficient: basis for a short-term genetic distance. Genetics, Austin, Tex 105:767–779Google Scholar
  22. Robertson DR (1973) Field observations on the reproductive behaviour of a pomacentrid fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus. Z Tierpsychol 32:319–324Google Scholar
  23. Shaklee JB (1984) Genetic variation and population structure in the damselfish Stegastes fasicolatus throughout the Hawiian archipelago. Copeia 1984:629–640Google Scholar
  24. Shaklee JB, Allendorf FW, Morizot DC, Whitt GS (1990) Gene nomenclature for protein-coding loci in fish. Trans Am Fish Soc 119:2–15Google Scholar
  25. She JX, Autem M, Kotulas G, Pasteur N, Bonhomme F (1987) Multivariate analysis of genetic exchanges between Solea aegyptiaca and Solea segalensis (teleosts, Soleidae). Biol J Linn Soc 32:357–371Google Scholar
  26. Slatkin M (1985) Rare alleles as indicators of gene flow. Evolution 39:53–65Google Scholar
  27. Smith PJ (1990) Protein electrophoresis for identification of Australasian fish stocks. Aust J mar Freshwat Res 41:823–833Google Scholar
  28. Thresher RE (1983) Habitat effects on reproductive success in the coral reef fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus (Pomacentridae). Ecology 64:1184–1199Google Scholar
  29. Thresher RE (1984) Reproduction,in reef fishes. THF Publications, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  30. Thresher RE (1985) Distribution, abundance, and reproductive success in the coral reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus. Ecology 66:1139–1150Google Scholar
  31. Weir BS, Cockerham CC (1984) Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structure. Evolution 41:358–370Google Scholar
  32. Wright S (1951) The genetical structure of populations. Ann Eugen 15:322–354Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. J. Doherty
    • 1
  • P. Mather
    • 1
  • S. Planes
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Australian Environmental StudiesGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Institute of Marine ScienceTownsvilleAustralia
  3. 3.Australian Institute of Marine ScienceTownsvilleAustralia
  4. 4.Centre for Biological Population Management, School of Life ScienceQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia
  5. 5.EPHE-URA CNRS 1453, Laboratoire d'Ichtyoécologie TropicaleUniversité de PerpignanPerpignanFrance

Personalised recommendations