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Marine Biology

, Volume 124, Issue 1, pp 17–25 | Cite as

Temperature and development in larvae of the turbot Scophthalmus maximus

  • S. Gibson
  • I. A. Johnston
Article

Abstract

Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) were reared at 12 and 16°C until 26 d after hatching. At both temperatures, starting at the neural plate stage, somites were initially formed every 75 min. Expressed as a percentage of development time (DT, fertilisation to 90% larvae hatching) somite formation occurred relatively earlier during embryogenesis at 12°C (45% DT) than at 16°C (55% DT). At 12°C, after the 32-somite stage the rate of somite formation decreased to one every 300 min. The larvae hatched after 6 d at 12°C and 3 d at 16°C at a relatively primitive stage of development, prior to the opening of the mouth and anus, with unpigmented eyes, and a straight gut. Temperature altered the relative timing of organogenesis in the larval stages. At 12°C, the following characters appeared (in this order): swimbladder>loop in the gut (at the time of yolk exhaustion)>caudal fin. In contrast, at 16°C, the caudal fin appeared at the same time as the loop in the gut. At 16°C, spines formed on the head in the region of the otic capsule at the time the swimbladder formed and the yolk was exhausted, but were absent in 12°C larvae. At both temperatures, in 1 d-old larvae the myotomes just behind the yolk-sac contained ∼ 200 inner muscle fibres (presumptive white muscle). The initial growth of inner muscle was largely due to hypertrophy, but by 26 d at 12°C and 11 d at 16°C hyperplastic growth became important, as evidenced by a significant increase in the number of small fibres (<10 μm2). By 26 d the average number of inner muscle fibres had increased to 341 at 12°C and 988 at 16°C. New muscle fibres were added in distinct germinal zones at the dorsal and ventral apices of the myotomes. Metamorphosis was associated with a thickening of the superficial (presumptive red) muscle layer and the appearance of tonic muscle fibres.

Keywords

Muscle Fibre Tonic Muscle White Muscle Small Fibre Neural Plate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Gibson
    • 1
  • I. A. Johnston
    • 1
  1. 1.Gatty Marine Laboratory, School of Biological and Medical SciencesUniversity of St. AndrewsSt. AndrewsScotland

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