Marine Biology

, Volume 122, Issue 2, pp 225–237 | Cite as

Introduction, dispersal and potential impacts of the green crab Carcinus maenas in San Francisco Bay, California

  • A. N. Cohen
  • J. T. Carlton
  • M. C. Fountain


The North Atlantic portunid crab Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus, 1758) has invaded the North Pacific Ocean following more than two centuries of global dispersal due to human activities. C. maenas was first collected in San Francisco Bay, California, in 1989–1990, where its distribution and prey selectivity were investigated in 1992–1994. It has become abundant in shallow, warm lagoons (which as favorable and retentive microhabitats may have served as invasion incubators) and spread throughout the north, central and south bays. It may have arrived in ballast water, on fouled ships, amongst algae with imported live bait or lobsters, or by intentional release; genetic comparisons of the Bay population with possible source populations may aid in defining the transport mechanism. C. maenas' eurytopic nature, its high breeding potential, and its diet and feeding behavior suggest the potential for extensive ecosystem alterations through predator-prey interactions, competition, disturbance, and indirect effects. Although both negative economic impacts through reduction or disruption of fisheries and positive impacts of providing bait and human-food fisheries have been documented in a few regions, the potential economic impacts in San Francisco Bay remain largely unknown.


Economic Impact Ballast Water North Pacific Ocean Green Crab Breeding Potential 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbas SAM (1985) Predation of infaunal bivalves by Carcinus maenas (L.) in the Burry Inlet, South Wales. PhD dissertation. University of Wales, SwanseaGoogle Scholar
  2. Allmon RA, Sebens KP (1988) Feeding biology and ecological impact of an introduced nudibranch, Tritonia plebeia, New England, USA. Mar Biol 99:375–385Google Scholar
  3. Almaça C (1961) Variabilidade de alguns carateres usados na taxonomia do gen. Carcinus Leach. Revta Fac Ciênc Univ Lisb 8:137–154Google Scholar
  4. Almaça C (1963) Sur le problème de l'origine de Carcinus maenas (L.) du littoral américain. Revta Fac Ciênc Univ Lisb 11:121–136Google Scholar
  5. Alpine AE, Cloern JE (1992) Trophic interactions and direct physical effects control phytoplankton biomass and production in an estuary. Limnol Oceanogr 37:946–955Google Scholar
  6. Ameyaw-Akumfi C, Naylor E (1987) Spontaneous and induced components of salinity preference behavior in Carcinus maenas. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 37:153–158Google Scholar
  7. Ashkenas LR, Atema J (1978) A salt marsh predator-prey relationship: attack behavior of Carcinus maenas (L.) and defenses of Ilyanassa obsoleta (Say). Biol Bull mar biol Lab, Woods Hole 155:426Google Scholar
  8. Atema J, Stenzler D (1977) Alarm substance of the marine mud snail, Nassarius obsoletus: biological characterization and possible evolution. J Chem Ecol 3:173–187Google Scholar
  9. Behbehani MI, Croker RA (1982) Ecology of beach wrack in northern New England with special reference to Orchestia platensis Estuar cstl, Shelf Sci 15:611–620Google Scholar
  10. Berman J, Harris L, Lambert W, Buttrick M, Dufresne M (1992) Recent invasions of the Gulf of Maine: three contrasting ecological histories. Conserv Biol 6:435–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berrill M, Berrill D (1981) A Sierra Club naturalist's guide: the North Atlantic coast. Sierra Club Books, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  12. Blegvad H (1914) Food and conditions of nourishment among the communities of invertebrate animals found on or in the sea bottom in Danish waters. Rep dan biol Stn 22:41–78Google Scholar
  13. Boschma H (1972) On the occurrence of Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus) and its parasite Sacculina carcini Thompson in Burma, with notes on the transport of crabs to new localities. Zoöl Meded, Leiden 47:145–155Google Scholar
  14. Brandwood A (1985) The effects of environment upon shell construction and strength in the rough periwinkle Littorina rudis Maton (Mollusca, Gastropoda). J Zool, London 206:551–556Google Scholar
  15. Broekhuysen GJ Jr (1936) On development, growth and distribution of Carcinus maenas (L.). Archs néerl Zool 2:257–399Google Scholar
  16. Buchsbaum R, Milne LJ (1960) Living invertebrates of the world. Doubleday & Co., Garden City, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Carlton, JT (1979a) History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America. PhD dissertation. University of California, DavisGoogle Scholar
  18. Carlton JT (1979b) Introduced invertebrates of San Francisco Bay. In: Conomos TJ (ed) San Francisco Bay: the urbanized estuary. Pacific Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco, California, pp 427–444Google Scholar
  19. Carlton JT (1985) Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms: the biology of ballast water. Oceanogr mar Biol A Rev 23:313–371Google Scholar
  20. Carlton JT (1989) Patterns of transoceanic marine biological invasions in the Pacific Ocean. Bull mar Sci 41:452–465Google Scholar
  21. Carlton JT (1989) Man's role in changing the face of the ocean: biological invasions and implications for conservation of nearshore environments. Conserv Biol 3:265–273Google Scholar
  22. Carlton JT (1992a) Blue immigrants: the marine biology of maritime history. The Log (Mystic Seaport Mus, Mystic, Connect) 44: 31–36Google Scholar
  23. Carlton JT (1992b) Dispersal of living organisms into aquatic ecosystems: the mechanisms of dispersal as mediated by aquaculture and fisheries activities. In: Rosenfield A, Mann R (eds) Dispersal of living organisms into aquatic ecosystems. Maryland Sea Grant, College Park, Maryland, pp 13–45Google Scholar
  24. Carlton JT, Cohen AN (1995) Episodic dispersal in shallow water marine organisms: the global movements of the European green crab Carcinus maenas (in preparation)Google Scholar
  25. Carlton JT, Geller JB (1993) Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science, NY 261:78–82Google Scholar
  26. Carlton JT, Thompson JK, Schemel LE, Nichols FH (1990) Remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay (California, USA) by the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis. I. Introduction and dispersal. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 66:81–94Google Scholar
  27. Chilton C (1910) Notes on the dispersal of marine Crustacea by ships. Trans NZ Inst 43:131–133Google Scholar
  28. Clay E (1965) Literature survey of the common fauna of estuaries. 16. Carcinus maenas L. Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., Brixham Laboratory, Great BritainGoogle Scholar
  29. Conomos TJ, Smith RE, Gartner JW (1985) Environmental setting of San Francisco Bay. In: Cloern JE, Nichols FH (eds) Temporal dynamics of an estuary: San Francisco Bay. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 1–13 [Reprinted from Hydrobiologia Vol. 129 (1985)]Google Scholar
  30. Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer (1982–1987) Bull statist Pêch marit 67–72:Google Scholar
  31. Cordell JR, Morgan CA, Simenstad CA (1992) Occurrence of the Asian calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus inopinus in the zooplankton of the Columbia River estuary. J Crustacean Biol 12: 260–269Google Scholar
  32. Crisp DJ (ed) (1964) The effects of the severe winter of 1962–63 on marine life in Britain. J Anim Ecol 33:165–210Google Scholar
  33. Crothers JH (1967) The biology of the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.) I. The background-anatomy, growth and life history. Fld Stud 2:407–434Google Scholar
  34. Crothers JH (1968) The biology of the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.) II. The life of the adult crab. Fld Stud 2:579–614Google Scholar
  35. Crothers JH (1970) The distribution of crabs on rocky shores around the Dale Peninsula. Fld Stud 3:263–274Google Scholar
  36. Dare PJ, Edwards DB (1976) Experiments on the survival, growth and yield of relaid seed mussels (Mytilus edulis) in the Menai Straits, North Wales. J Cons int Explor Mer 37:16–28Google Scholar
  37. Dare PJ, Edwards DB (1981) Underwater television observations on the intertidal movements of shore crabs, Carcinus maenas, across a mudflat. J mar biol Ass UK 61:107–116Google Scholar
  38. Dawirs RR (1982) Methodological aspects of rearing decapod larvae Pagurus bernhardus (Paguridae) and Carcinus maenas (Portunidae). Helgoländer Meeresunters 35:439–464Google Scholar
  39. Dawirs RR (1985) Temperature and larval development of Carcinus maenas (Decapoda) in the laboratory; predictions of larval dynamics in the sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 24:297–302Google Scholar
  40. Dearborn JH (1957) A preliminary study of the food habits of the green crab, Carcinus maenas (L.), with particular reference to the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria. MS thesis. Michigan State University of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, East Lansing, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  41. Demeusy N (1953) Comparaison biologique de deux populations de Carcinus maenas Pennant: mue de puberté. C r hebd Séanc Acad Sci, Paris 236:1203–1205Google Scholar
  42. Demeusy N (1958) Recherches sur la mue de puberté du décapode brachyoure Carcinus maenas Linné. Archs Zool exp gén 95: 253–492Google Scholar
  43. Demeusy N, Veillet A (1953) Sur l'existence de deux populations de Carcinus maenas Pennant et sur les caractères morphologiques qui les distinguent. C r hebd Séanc Acad Sci, Paris 236:1088–1090Google Scholar
  44. Dexter RW (1947) The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology. Ecol Monogr 17:261–294Google Scholar
  45. Dries M, Adelung D (1982) Die Schlei, ein Modell für die Verbreitung der Strandkrabbe Carcinus maenas. Helgoländer Meeresunters 35:65–77Google Scholar
  46. Ebling FJ, Kitching JA, Muntz L, Taylor CM (1964) The ecology of Lough Ine. XIII. Experimental destruction of Mytilus edulis and Nucella lapillus crabs. J Anim Ecol 33:73–82Google Scholar
  47. Edwards RL (1958) Movements of individual members in a population of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas L., in the littoral zone. J Anim Ecol 27:37–45Google Scholar
  48. Elner RW (1977) The predatory behavior of Carcinus maenas. PhD dissertation. University of North Wales, BangorGoogle Scholar
  49. Elner RW (1978) The mechanics of predation by the shore crab Carcinus maenas on the edible mussel Mytilus edulis. Oecologia 36:333–344Google Scholar
  50. Elner RW (1980) The influence of temperature, sex and chela size in the foraging strategy of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas (L.). Mar Behav Physiol 7:15–24Google Scholar
  51. Elner RW (1981) Diet of green crab Carcinus maenas (L.) from Port Herbert, southwestern Nova Scotia. J Shellfish Res 189–94Google Scholar
  52. Elner RW, Hughes, RN (1978) Energy maximization in the diet of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. J Animal Ecol 47:103–116Google Scholar
  53. Elner RW, Raffaelli, DH (1980) Interactions between two marine snails, Littorina rudis Maton and Littorina nigrolineata Gray, a predator, Carcinus maenas (L.) and a parasite, Microphallus similis Jagerskiold. J exp mar Biol Ecol 43:151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Eriksson S, Edlund AM (1977) On the ecological energetics of 0-group Carcinus maenas (L.) from a shallow sandy bottom in Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. J exp mar Biol Ecol 30:233–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Eriksson S, Evans S, Tallmark B (1975a) On the coexistence of scavengers on shallow, sandy bottoms in Gullmar Fjord (Sweden). Adaptations to substratum, temperature, and salinity. ZOON 3:65–70Google Scholar
  56. Eriksson S, Evans S, Tallmark B (1975b) On the coexistence of scavengers on shallow, sandy bottoms in Gullmar Fjord (Sweden). Activity patterns and feeding ability. ZOON 3:121–124Google Scholar
  57. Essink K, Kleef HL (1993) Distribution and life cycle of the North American spionid polychaete Marenzellerua viridis (Verrill, 1873) in the Ems Estuary. Neth J aquat Ecol 27:237–246Google Scholar
  58. Fulton SW, Grant FE (1900) Note on the occurrence of the European crab, Carcinus maenas, Leach, in Port Phillip. Victorian Nat 27:147–148Google Scholar
  59. Fulton SW, Grant FE (1902) Some little known Victorian decapod Crustacea with description of a new species. Proc R Soc Vict 14:55–64Google Scholar
  60. Gee JM, Warwick RM, Davey JT, George CL (1985) Field experiments on the role of epibenthic predation in determining prey densities in an estuarine mudflat. Estuar cstl, Shelf Sci 21: 429–448Google Scholar
  61. Glude JB (1955) The effects of temperature and predators on the abundance of the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria in New England. Trans Am Fish Soc 84:13–26Google Scholar
  62. Grosholz ED, Ruiz GM (1995) Spread and potential impact of the recently introduced European green crab Carcinus maenas in central California. Mar Biol 122:239–247Google Scholar
  63. Hadlock RP (1980) Alarm response of the intertidal snail Littorina littorea (L.) to predation by the crab Carcinus maenas, (L.). Biol Bull mar biol Lab, Woods Hole 159:269–279Google Scholar
  64. Hallagraeff GM, Bolch CJ (1991) Transport of toxic dinoflagellate cysts via ships' ballast water. Mar Pollut Bull 22:27–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hancock DA, Urquhart EA (1965) The determination of natural mortality and its causes in an exploited population of cockles (Cardium edule L.). Fishery Invest, Lond (Ser 2) 24:1–23Google Scholar
  66. Hanks RW (1961) Chemical control of the green crab, Carcinus maenas (L.). Proc natn Shellfish Ass 52:75–86Google Scholar
  67. Harms J, Seeger B (1989) Larval development and survival in seven decapod species (Crustacea) in relation to laboratory diet. J exp mar Biol Ecol 131:129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Harris MP (1965) The food of some Larus gulls. Ibis 107:43–51Google Scholar
  69. Hartley PHT (1939) The Saltash tuck-net fishery and the ecology of some estuarine fishes. J mar biol Ass UK 24:1–67Google Scholar
  70. Hay CH (1990) The dispersal of sporophytes of Undaria pinnatifida by coastal shipping in New Zealand, and implications for further dispersal of Undaria in France. Br Phycol J 25:301–313Google Scholar
  71. Hedgpeth J (1968) Newcomers to the Pacific coast: the estuarine itinerants. In: Ricketts EF, Calvin J, Hedgpeth JW (eds) Between Pacific tides. 4th edn. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  72. Heller J (1976) The effects of exposure and predation on the shell of two British winkles. J Zool Lond 179:201–213Google Scholar
  73. Hicks DW, Tunnell JW (1993) Invasion of the south Texas coast by the edible brown mussel, Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758). Veliger 36:92–94Google Scholar
  74. Hughes RN, Elner RW (1979) Tactics of a predator, Carcinus maenas, and morphological responses of the prey, Nucella lapillus. J Anim Ecol 48:65–78Google Scholar
  75. Hutchings P, Vander-Velde J, Keable S (1989) Baseline survey of the benthic macrofauna of Twofold Bay, N.S.W., with a discussion of the marine species introduced to the Bay. Proc Linn Soc NSW 110:339–367Google Scholar
  76. Janke K (1990) Biological interactions and their role in community structure in the rocky intertidal of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea). Helgoländer Meeresunters 44:219–264Google Scholar
  77. Jensen KT, Jensen JN (1985) The importance of some epibenthic predators on the density of juvenile benthic microfauna in the Danish Wadden Sea. J exp mar Biol Ecol 89:157–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Johannesson B (1986) Shell morphology of Littorina saxatilis Olivi: the relative importance of physical factors and predation. J exp mar Biol Ecol 102:183–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Juanes F (1992) Why do decapod crustaceans prefer small-sized molluscan prey? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 87:239–249Google Scholar
  80. Jubb CA, Hughes RN, ap Rheinallt T (1983) Behavioral mechanisms of size-selection by crabs, Carcinus maenas (L.) feeding on mussels, Mytilus edulis. J exp mar Biol Ecol 66:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kaiser MJ, Hughes RN, Reid DG (1990) Chelal morphometry, prey size selection and aggressive competition in green and red forms of Carcinus maenas. J exp mar Biol Ecol 140:121–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kitching JA, Muntz L, Ebling FJ (1966) The ecology of Loughe Ine. XV. The ecological significance of shell and body forms in Nucella. J Anim Ecol 35:113–126Google Scholar
  83. Klein Breteler WCM (1976a) Migration of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas, in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Neth J Sea Res 10:338–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Klein Breteler WCM (1976b) Settlement, growth and production of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas on tidal flats in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Neth J Sea Res 10:354–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lake NCH, Jones MB, Paul JD (1987) Crab predation on scallop Pecten maximus and its implication for scallop cultivation. J mar biol Ass UK 67:55–64Google Scholar
  86. Lambert WJ, Levin PS, Berman J (1992) Changes in the structure of a New England (USA) kelp bed: the effects of an introduced species? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 88:303–307Google Scholar
  87. Lebour MV (1928) The larval stages of the Plymouth Brachyura. Proc zool Soc Lond 1928:473–560Google Scholar
  88. Le Calvez JC (1987) Relations entre la faune annélidienne et un crustacé décapode, Carcinus maenas L., dans le bassin maritime de La Rance (Bretagne Nord). Océanis Paris 10:785–796Google Scholar
  89. Le Calvez JC (1987) Location of the shore crab Carcinus maenas, L. in the food web of a managed estuary ecosystem: the Rance Basin (Brittany, France). Investigación pesq 51 (Suppl 1): 431–442Google Scholar
  90. Le Roux PJ, Branch GM, Joska MAP (1990) On the distribution, diet and possible impact of the invasive European shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.) along the South African coast. S Afr J mar Sci 9:85–92Google Scholar
  91. MacPhail JS, Lord EI, Dickie LM (1955) The green crab—a new clam enemy. Prog Rep Atlant Cst Stns 63:3–12Google Scholar
  92. Marshall N (1960) Studies of the Niantic River, Connecticut with special reference to the bay scallop, Aequipecten irradians. Limnol Oceanogr 5:86–105Google Scholar
  93. McDermott JJ (1991) A breeding population of the western Pacific crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae) established on the Atlantic coast of North America. Biol Bull mar biol Lab, Woods Hole 181:195–198Google Scholar
  94. McDonald JH, Koehn RK (1988) The mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and M. trossulus on the Pacific coast of North America. Mar Biol 99:111–118Google Scholar
  95. McGraw IJ, Naylor E (1992) Salinity preference of the shore crab Carcinus maenas in relation to coloration during intermoult and prior to acclimation. J exp mar Biol Ecol 155:145–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. McKechnie RJ, Fenner RB (1971) Food habits of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in San Pablo and Suisun Bays, California. Calif Fish Game 57:209–212Google Scholar
  97. Meinesz A, Hesse B (1991) Introduction et invasion de l'algue tropicale Calerpa taxifolia en Méditerranée nord-occidentale. Oceanol Acta 14:415–426Google Scholar
  98. Miller RL (1969) Ascophyllum nodosum: a source of exotic invertebrates introduced into west coast near-shore marine waters. Veliger 12:130–231Google Scholar
  99. Mills EL, Leach JH, Carlton JT, Secor CL (1993) Exotic species in the Great Lakes: a history of biotic crises and anthropogenic introductions. J Great Lakes Res 19:1–54Google Scholar
  100. Moller, H. (1995) Invasions of social insects (in preparation)Google Scholar
  101. Muntz L, Ebling FJ, Kitching JA (1965) The Ecology of Loughe Ine. XIV. Predatory activity of large crabs. J Anim Ecol 34:315–329Google Scholar
  102. Muus BJ (1967) The fauna of Danish estuaries and Lagoons. Meddr Kommn Danm Fisk-og Havunders 5:1–316Google Scholar
  103. Naylor E (1958) Tidal and diurnal rhythms of locomotory activity in Carcinus maenas (L.). J exp Biol 35:602–610Google Scholar
  104. Naylor E (1965) Biological effects of heat effluent in the docks at Swansea. Proc zool Soc Lond 144:253–268Google Scholar
  105. Nichols FH, Pamatmat MM (1988) The ecology of the soft-bottom benthos of San Francisco Bay: a community profile. US Fish Wildl Serv biol Rep 85(7.19):1–73Google Scholar
  106. Nichols FH, Thompson JK, Schemel LE (1990) Remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay (California, USA) by the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis. II. Displacement of a former community. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 66:95–101Google Scholar
  107. Orsi JJ, Walter TC (1991) Pseudodiaptomus forbesi and P. marinus (Copepoda: Calanoida), the latest copepod immigrants to California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Copepoda. Bull Plankton Soc Japan (Spec Vol):553–562Google Scholar
  108. Parsons J (1974) Advantages in tray cultivation of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in Strangford Lough, N. Ireland. Aquaculture, Amsterdam 3:221–229Google Scholar
  109. Patterson AH (1912) Wild life on a Norfolk Estuary. Methuen & Co., LondonGoogle Scholar
  110. Perkins EJ (1967) Some aspects of the biology of Carcinus maenas (L.). Trans J Proc Dumfries Galloway nat Hist Antiq Soc (Ser 3) 44:47–56Google Scholar
  111. Perkins EJ, Gribbon E, Murray RB (1969) Some aspects of the biology of Carcinus maenas (L.). II. Survival at low salinity. Trans J Proc Dumfries Galloway nat Hist Antiq Soc (Ser 3) 46:27–28Google Scholar
  112. Perkins EJ, Penfound JM (1969) Aspects of predation by Carcinus. maenas. Proc Challenger Soc 4:21–22Google Scholar
  113. Pohle DG, Bricel JVM, Garcia-Esquivel Z (1991) The eelgrass canopy: an above-bottom refuge from benthic predators for juvenile bay scallops Argopecten irradians. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 74:47–59Google Scholar
  114. Raffaelli D, Conacher A, McLachlan H, Emes C (1989) The role of epibenthic crustacean predators in an estuarine food web. Estuar estl, Shelf Sci 28:149–160Google Scholar
  115. Rargeley RW, Thomas MLH (1987) Predatory behavior of juvenile shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.). J exp mar Biol Ecol 108: 191–197Google Scholar
  116. Rasmussen E (1959) Behavior of sacculinized shore crabs (Carcinus maenas Pennant). Nature, Lond 183:479–480Google Scholar
  117. Rasmussen E (1973) Systematics and ecology of the Isefjord marine fauna (Denmark). Ophelia 11:211–221Google Scholar
  118. Rees GH (1963) Edible crabs of the United States. Fishery Leafl Fish Wildl Serv US 550:1–18Google Scholar
  119. Reilly PN (1983) Predation on Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, in central California. Calif Dep Fish Game Fish Bull 172:155–164Google Scholar
  120. Rice AL, Ingle RW (1975) The larval development of Carcinus maenas (L.) and C. mediterraneus (Crustacea, Brachura, Portunidae) reared in the laboratory. Bull Br Mus nat Hist (D: Zool) 28: 103–119Google Scholar
  121. Rivest BR (1978) Development of the eolid nudibranch Cuthona nana (Alder and Hancock 1842), and its relationship with a hydroid and a hermit crab. Biol Bull mar biol Lab, Woods Hole 154:157–175Google Scholar
  122. Ropes JW (1968) The feeding habits of the green crab, Carcinus maenas (L.). Fishery Bull Fish Wildl Serv US 67:183–203Google Scholar
  123. Ropes JW (1989) The food habits of five crab species at Pettaquamscutt River, Thode Island. Fishery Bull Fish Wildl Serv US 87:197–204Google Scholar
  124. Rosenzweig PA (1984) A range extension for the European shore crab Carcinus maenas (Linn 1758) in South Australia. S Austr Nat 59:18–19Google Scholar
  125. Russo RA (1975) Observations of the food habits of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) and brown smoothhounds (Mustelus henlei). Calif Fish Game 61:95–103Google Scholar
  126. Sanchez-Salazar ME, Griffiths CL, Seed R (1987a) The effect of size and temperature on the predation of cockles Cerastoderma edule (L.) by the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.). J exp mar Biol Ecol 111:181–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sanchez-Salazar ME, Griffiths CL, Seed R (1987b) The interactive roles of predation and tidal elevation in structuring populations of the edible cockle, Cerastoderma edule. Estuar cstl, Shelf Sci 25:245–260Google Scholar
  128. Say T (1817) An account of the Crustacea of the United States. J Acad nat Sci Philad 1:57–63Google Scholar
  129. Scherer B, Reise K (1981) Significant predation on micro-and macrobenthos by the crab Carcinus maenas L. in the Wadden Sea. Kieler Meeresforsch (Sonderh) 5:490–500Google Scholar
  130. Schneider DC, Harrington BA (1981) Timing of shorebird migration in relation to prey depletion. Auk 98:801–811Google Scholar
  131. Scott T (1902) Observations on the food of fishes. Rep Fishery Bd Scotl 20:486–541Google Scholar
  132. Sergeant DE (1951) The status of the common seal (Phoca vitulina) on the East Anglian coast. J mar biol Ass UK 24:707–717Google Scholar
  133. Shushkina EA, Musayeva EI (1990) Structure of planktic community of the Black Sea epipelagic zone and its variation caused by invasion of a new ctenophore species. Oceanology 30:225–228Google Scholar
  134. Smidt ELB (1951) Animal production in the Danish Wadden Sea. Meddr Kommn Danm Fisk-og Havunders (Ser: Fiskeri) 11: 1–151Google Scholar
  135. Smith OR, Chin E (1951) The effects of predation on soft clams, Mya arenaria. Proc natn Shellfish Ass 1951:37–44Google Scholar
  136. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1981) Biometry. The principles and practice of statistics in biological research. 2nd edn. W.H. Freeman & Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  137. Spear HS (1955) Notes on laboratory experiments on feeding habits of green crabs. US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Clam Investigations No. 45. 5th Conference on Clam Research. Boothbay Harbor, Maine (Cited after Ropes 1968)Google Scholar
  138. Stenzler D, Atema J (1977) Alarm substance of the marine mud snail, Nassarius obsoletus: specificity and behavioral priority. J chem Ecol 3:159–171Google Scholar
  139. Sverdrup HU, Johnson MW, Flemming RH (1947) The oceans. Their physics, chemistry and general biology. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  140. Talent LG (1982) Food habits of the grey smoothhound, Mustelus californicus, the brown smoothhound, Mustelus henlei, the shovelnose guitarfish, Rhinobatos productus, and the bat ray, Myliobatis californica, in Elkhorn Slough, California. Calif Fish Game 68:224–234Google Scholar
  141. Tasto RN (1983) Juvenile Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, studies in the San Francisco Bay area. Calif Dep Fish Game, Fish Bull 172:135–154Google Scholar
  142. Thomas JL (1967) The diet of juvenile and adult striped bass, Roccus saxatilis, in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system. Calif Fish Game 53:49–62Google Scholar
  143. Thomas NJ, Lasiak TA, Naylor E (1981) Salinity preference behavior in Carcinus. Mar Behav Physiol 7:277–283Google Scholar
  144. Thorson G (1946) Reproduction and larval development of Danish marine bottom invertebrates, with special reference to the planktonic larvae in the sound (Øresund). Meddr Kommn Danm Fiskog Havunders (Ser: Plankton) 4:1–523Google Scholar
  145. Tinbergen N (1953) The herring gull's world. Collins, LondonGoogle Scholar
  146. Varagnolo S (1968) Fishery of the green crab (Carcinus maenas L.) and soft crab cultivation in the lagoon of Venice. Stud Rev gen Fish Coun Mediterr 37:1–13Google Scholar
  147. Vermeij GJ (1982) Phenotypic evolution in a poorly dispersing snail after arrival of a predator. Nature, Lond 299:149–150Google Scholar
  148. Vinogradev MY, Shushkina EA, Musayeva EI, Sorokin PY (1989) A newly acclimated species in the Black Sea: the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora: Lobata). Oceanology, Wash 29:220–224Google Scholar
  149. Wallace JC (1973) Feeding, starvation and metabolic rate in the shore crab Carcinus maenas. Mar Biol 20:277–281Google Scholar
  150. Walne PR, Dean GJ (1972) Experiments on predation by the shore crab Carcinus maenas on Mytilus and Mercenaria. J Cons int Explor Mer 34:190–199Google Scholar
  151. Welch WR (1968) Changes in abundance of the green crab, Carcinus maenas (L.), in relation to recent temperature changes. Fish Bull US 67:337–345Google Scholar
  152. Williams AB (1984) Shrimps, lobsters, and crabs of the Atlantic coast of the eastern United States, Maine to Florida. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  153. Williams AB, Abele LG, Felder DL, Hobbs HH, Manning RB, McLaughlin PA, Farfante IP (1989) Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: decapod crustaceans. American Fisheries Society, Maryland (Publ No. 17)Google Scholar
  154. Williams BG (1968) Laboratory rearing of the larval stages of Carcinus maenas (L.) (Crustacea: Decapoda). J nat Hist 2:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Witherby HF, Jourdain FCR, Ticehurst NF, Tucker BW (1938–1941) The handbook of British birds. 5 vols. H. F. & G. Witherby, LodonGoogle Scholar
  156. Yonge CM (1960) Oysters. Collins, LondonGoogle Scholar
  157. Zanette Y, Peyre R, Heral M (1981) Prégrossissement et élevage de palourdes japonaises en marais: technique entre filet. Int Counc Explor Sea Comm Meet (Maricult Comm) F:41: PosterGoogle Scholar
  158. Zariquiey Alvarez R (1968) Crustáceos decápodos ibéricos. Investigación pesq 32:1–510Google Scholar
  159. Zeidler W (1978) Note on the occurrence of the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas (Linn., 1758) in Australia. S Austr Nat 53:11–12Google Scholar
  160. Zeidler W (1988) The European shore crab, Carcinus maenas in the Coorong—a potential threat to fisheries. Trans R Soc S Austr 112:181–182Google Scholar
  161. Zibrowius H (1992) Ongoing modification of the Mediterranean marine fauna and flora by the establishment of exotic species. Mésogée 51:83–107Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. N. Cohen
    • 1
  • J. T. Carlton
    • 2
  • M. C. Fountain
    • 3
  1. 1.Energy and Resources GroupUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Maritime Studies ProgramWilliams College-Mystic SeaportMysticUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologySan Francisco State UniversitySan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations