Marine Biology

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 138–144 | Cite as

Factors affecting the feeding rate of the winkle Littorina littorea

  • R. C. Newell
  • V. I. Pye
  • M. Ahsanullah


The winkle Littorina littorea (L.) feeds mainly when moistened by the tide and is quiescent when exposed to the drying effects of the wind and sun. Upper shore winkles thus experience a reduced feeding time compared with individuals living lower in the intertidal zone, but are able to completely compensate by an increased rate of radular activity when immersed. The rate of radular activity is influenced by the body size of winkles, by experimental temperature and by acclimation temperature, but is mainly modified by the duration of exposure to air which directly controls the rate of radular activity on immersion.


Body Size Experimental Temperature Intertidal Zone Acclimation Temperature Feeding Time 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Newell
    • 1
  • V. I. Pye
    • 1
  • M. Ahsanullah
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoology, Queen Mary CollegeUniversity of LondonLondonEngland

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