Advertisement

Oecologia

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 202–208 | Cite as

Optimizing development time in a seasonal environment: The ‘ups and downs’ of clinal variation

  • Derek Roff
Article

Summary

This paper explores the problem of adapting development time to changes in the length of time conditions are favourable for growth and reproduction (‘season length’). It is shown that systematic changes in season length along some gradient such as latitude can generate either simple clines in development time or ‘saw-tooth’ clines. The relationship between development time and body size gives rise to a corresponding variation in body size. The generation of a ‘saw-tooth’ cline does not require sharp environmental changes. Both types of clinal variation are observed in insects.

Keywords

Body Size Development Time Environmental Change Clinal Variation Systematic Change 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beck, S.D.: Insect photoperiodism. New York and London: Academic Press (1968)Google Scholar
  2. Bell, G.: On breeding more than once. Amer. Nat. 110, 57–77 (1976)Google Scholar
  3. Boesiger, E.: Estimation globale de l'age des femelles de Drosophila melanogaster capturees dans des populations naturelles, C.R. Soc. Biol. 162, 358–361 (1968)Google Scholar
  4. Bouletreau, J.: Ovarian activity and reproductive potential in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. Oecologia (Berl.) 35, 319–342 (1978)Google Scholar
  5. Bradshaw, W.E.: Geography of photoperiodic response in diapausing mosquito. Nature 262, 384–386 (1968)Google Scholar
  6. Bradshaw, W.E., Lounibos, P.: Evolution of dormancy and its photoperiodic control in Pitcher-plant Mosquitoes. Evolution 31, 546–567 (1977)Google Scholar
  7. Chiang, H.C., Hodson, A.C.: An analytical study of population growth in Drosophila melanogaster. Ecol. Monog. 20, 173–206 (1950)Google Scholar
  8. Clifford, H.F., Boerger, H.: Fecundity of mayflies (ephemeroptera), with special reference to mayflies of a brown-water stream of Alberta, Canada. Can. Ent. 106, 1111–1119 (1974)Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, D.: Optimizing reproduction in a randomly varying environment. J. Theoret. Biol. 12, 119–129 (1966)Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, D.: Optimizing reproduction in a randomly varying environment when a correlation may exist between the conditions at the time a choice has to be made and the subsequent outcome. J. Theoret. Biol. 16, 1–14 (1967)Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, D.: A theoretical model for the optimal timing of diapause. Amer. Nat. 104, 389–400 (1970)Google Scholar
  12. Cole, L.C.: The population consequences of life-history phenomena. Quart. Rev. Biol. 29, 103–137 (1954)Google Scholar
  13. Danilevskii, A.S.: Photoperiodism and seasonal development of insects. London: Oliver and Boyd (1965)Google Scholar
  14. Endler, J.A.: Geographic variation, speciation and clines. Princeton Univ. Press, pp. 246, 1977Google Scholar
  15. Fairbairn, D.J.: Why breed early? A study of reproductive tactics in Peromyscus. Can. J. Zool. 55, 862–871 (1977)Google Scholar
  16. Fisher, R.A.: The genetical theory of natural selection. Dover Publ. (1958)Google Scholar
  17. Gadgil, M., Bossert, W.H.: Life historical consequences of natural selection. Amer. Nat. 104, 1–24 (1970)Google Scholar
  18. Hairston, N.G., Tinkle, D.W., Wilbur, H.M.: Natural selection and the parameters of population growth. J. Wildlife Mangmt. 34, 681–690 (1970)Google Scholar
  19. Kamm, J.A.: Photoperiodic regulation of growth in an insect: response to progressive changes in daylength. J. Insect Physiol. 18, 1745–1749 (1972)Google Scholar
  20. Kishino, K.: Ecological studies on the local characteristics of seasonal development in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker. II. Local characteristics of diapause and development. Jap. J. Appl. Ent. Zool. 14, 1–11 (1970a)Google Scholar
  21. Kishino, K.: Ecological studies on the local characteristics of development of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker. III. Seasonal development on the transitional zone from the univoltine to the bivoltine areas in the rice stem borer. Jap. J. Appl. Ent. Zool. 14, 182–190 (1970b)Google Scholar
  22. Lakovarea, S., Saurce, A., Koref-Santibanez, S., Ehrman, E.: Aspects of diapause and its genetics in northern drosophilida. Hereditas 70, 89–96 (1972)Google Scholar
  23. Levins, R.: Dormancy as an adaptive strategy. Symposia Soc. Exp. Biol. XXIII Dormancy and Survival, 1–10 (1969)Google Scholar
  24. Lewontin, R.C.: Selection for colonizing ability. In: ‘The genetics of colonizing species‘ (Baker, H.G., G.L. Stebbins eds.) pp. 588, New York, Academic Press, 1965Google Scholar
  25. Lewontin, R.C., Cohen, D.: On population growth in a randomly varying environment. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wahs.) 62, 1056–1060 (1969)Google Scholar
  26. Lumme, J.: Phenology and photoperiodic diapause in northern populations of Drosophila. In: Evolution of insect migration and diapause (H. Dingle, ed.). Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag 1978Google Scholar
  27. MacArthur, R.: Selection for life tables in periodic environments. Amer. Nat. 102, 381–383 (1968)Google Scholar
  28. Masaki, S.: Geographic variation and climatic adaption in a field cricket, (Orthoptera: Grylidae). Evolution 21, 725–741 (1967)Google Scholar
  29. Masaki, S.: Climatic adaption and photoperiodic response in the band-legged ground cricket. Evolution 26, 587–600 (1972)Google Scholar
  30. Masaki, S.: Climatic adaptation and species status in the Lawn Ground Cricket. II. Body Size. Oecologia (Berl.) 35, 343–356 (1978a)Google Scholar
  31. Masaki, S.: Seasonal and latitudinal adaptations in the life cycles of crickets. In: Evolution of insect migration and diapause (H. Dingle, ed.). Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  32. Morris, F.: Observed and simulated changes in genetic quality in natural population of Hyphantria cunae. Can Ent. 103, 893–906 (1971)Google Scholar
  33. Morris, R.F., Fulton, W.C.: Heritabity of diapause intensity in Hyphantria cunea and correlated fitness responses. Can. Ent. 102, 927–938 (1970)Google Scholar
  34. Murphy, G.I.: Pattern of life history and the environment. Amer. Nat. 102, 391–403 (1968)Google Scholar
  35. Murray, J., Clarke, B.: Inheritance of shell size in Partula. Heredity 23, 190–198 (1968)Google Scholar
  36. McLaren, I.A.: Inheritance of demographic and production parameters in the marine copepod Eurytemora herdmani. Biol. Bull. 151, 200–213 (1976)Google Scholar
  37. Robertson, F.W.: The ecological genetics of growth in Drosophila I. Body Size and development time on different diets. Genet. Res. Camb. 1, 288–304 (1960a)Google Scholar
  38. Robertson, F.W.: The ecological genetics of growth in Drosophila II. Selection for large body size on different diets. Genet. Res. Camb. 1, 305–318 (1960b)Google Scholar
  39. Robertson, F.W., Reeve, E.: Studies in quantitative inheritance. I. The effects of selection of wing and thorax length in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Genet. 50, 414–448 (1952)Google Scholar
  40. Roff, D.A.: Size and survivial in a stochastic environment. Oecologia (Berl.) 36, 163–172 (1978)Google Scholar
  41. Roff, D.A.: Spatial heterogeneity and the persistence of populations. Oecologia (Berl.) 15, 245–258 (1974a)Google Scholar
  42. Roff, D.A.: The analysis of a model demonstrating the importance of dispersal in a heterogeneous environment. Oecologia (Berl.) 5, 259–279 (1974b)Google Scholar
  43. Saunders, D.S.: Insect clocks. New York: Pergamon Press (1976)Google Scholar
  44. Schaffer, W.M.: Optimal reproductive effort in fluctuating environments. Amer. Nat. 108, 783–790 (1974)Google Scholar
  45. Shapir, H.: The rate of oviposition in the fruit fly, Drosophila. Biol. Bull. 63, 456–471Google Scholar
  46. Tamura, I., Iwata, T., Kishino, K.: Geographical races in the rice Stem maggot. Chlorops oryzae Matsumura (1). Jap. J. Appl. Ent. Zool. 3, 243–249 (1959)Google Scholar
  47. Tantawy, A.O., Rakha, F.A.: Studies on natural populations of Drosophila. IV. Genetic variances of and correlation between four characters in D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Genetics 50, 1349–1355 (1964)Google Scholar
  48. Tyndale-Biscoe, M., Hughes, R.D.: Changes in the female reproductive system as age indicators in the bushfly Musca retustissima Wlk. Bull Ent. Res. 59, 129–141 (1968)Google Scholar
  49. Vepsalainen, K.: Wing dimorphism and diapause in Gerris: determination and adaptive significance. In: Evolution of insect migration and diapause (H. Dingle, ed.). Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer Verlag 1978Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Derek Roff
    • 1
  1. 1.Research and Resource ServicesDepartment of Fisheries and OceansSt. John's

Personalised recommendations