, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 231–245 | Cite as

Population differentiation and germination ecology in Stellaria media (L.) Vill.

  • F. W. van der Vegte


Population differentiation in Stellaria media was studied with regard to life-cycle strategy and germination ecology. Two populations were identified in the study area, growing side by side, W1 and W2. The life-span of population W1 is much shorter than that of population W2, especially under summer conditions: 1–2 months versus 4–6 months; the time to flowering differs accordingly. Germination properties of seed produced under summer, winter, and field conditions were studied. Fresh seeds produced at 20° C showed good germination (ca. 75%) over a broad range of temperatures in the case of population W1, but seeds of population W2 showed appreciable germination only at high temperatures (ca. 30%). Seeds produced at 7° C showed very little (population W2) or no germination at all (population W1). To simulate seasonal changes in temperature, a “comprehensive” germination scheme was developed which enabled the response of hydrated seeds to two temperature cycles (cold-warm-cold and warm-cold-warm) to be tested. The two populations reacted differently. At the end of the cycles, only a few seeds of population W1, but about half of the seeds of population W2, remained dormant. The data obtained were used to study the effects of differential germination ecology on the dynamics of the two populations. In a reconstruction of the courses of development, the populations were shown to possess different strategies. Population W1 builds up a uniform seed stock, and population W2 a phenotypically diverse seed reserve. The implications for population dynamics are discussed.


Hydrated Population Dynamic Field Condition Seasonal Change Population Differentiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baskin, J.M., Baskin, C.C.: Germination of winter annuals in July and survival of the seedlings. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 98, 272–276 (1971)Google Scholar
  2. Baskin, J.M., Baskin, C.C.: High temperature requirement for afterripening in seeds of winter annuals. New Phytol. 77, 619–624 (1976)Google Scholar
  3. Baskin, J.M., Baskin, C.C.: Germination ecology of Sedum pulchellum Michx. (Crassulaceae). Am. J. Bot. 64, 1242–1247 (1977)Google Scholar
  4. Datta, S.C., Gutterman, Y., Evenari, M.: The influence of the origin of the mother plant on yield and germination of their caryopses in Aegilops ovata. Planta (Berl.) 105, 155–164 (1972)Google Scholar
  5. Evans, R.A., Young, J.A., Kay, B.L.: Germination of winter annual species from a rangeland community treated with paraquat. Weed Sci 22, 185–188 (1974)Google Scholar
  6. Grant Lipp, A.E., Ballard, L.A.T.: Germination patterns shown by the light-sensitive seed of Anagallis arvensis. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 16, 572–584 (1963)Google Scholar
  7. Gutterman, Y.: Differences in the progeny due to daylength and hormone treatment of the mother plant. In: Seed ecology (W. Heydecker, ed.), pp. 59–80. London: Butterworths 1973Google Scholar
  8. Hájková, L., Krekule, J.: The developmental pattern in a group of therophytes. I. Seed dormancy. Flora 161, 111–120 (1972)Google Scholar
  9. Harper, J.L.: Population biology of plants. London-New York-San Francisco: Academic Press 1977Google Scholar
  10. Harrington, J.F., Thompson, R.C.: Effect of variety and area of production on subsequent germination of lettuce seed at high temperature. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci 59, 445–450 (1952)Google Scholar
  11. Hayashi, I., Numata, M.: Ecology of pioneer species of early stages in secondary succession I. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 80, 11–22 (1967)Google Scholar
  12. Heydecker, W.: Glossary of terms. In: Seed ecology (W. Heydecker, ed.), pp. 553–557. London: Butterworths 1973Google Scholar
  13. Hitzer, K.: Die Bedingungen der Blütenbildung von Stelleria media. Flora 129, 309–335 (1934–1935)Google Scholar
  14. Janssen, J.G.M.: Simulation of germination of winter annuals in relation to microclimate and microdistribution. Oecologia (Berl.) 14, 197–228 (1974)Google Scholar
  15. Kanipe, L.A.: The germination of the seeds of Alsine media. Proc. Assoc. Off. Seed Analysts N. Am. 1938, 249–252 (1939)Google Scholar
  16. Kolk, H.: Groningsbiologiska studier på ogräsarter. Växtodling 2, 108–167 (1947)Google Scholar
  17. Kolk, H.: Viability and dormancy of dry stored weed seeds. Växtodling 18, 1–192 (1962)Google Scholar
  18. Koller, D.: Preconditioning of germination in lettuce at time of fruit ripening. Am. J. Bot. 49, 841–844 (1962)Google Scholar
  19. Krug, H.: Beiträge zur Keimungsphysiologie und Bekämpfung von Samenunkräutern. Bot. Arch. 27, 420–518 (1929)Google Scholar
  20. Lang, A.: Effects of some internal and external conditions on seed germination. In: Encyclopedia of plant physiology, 15 (W. Ruhland, ed.), pp. 848–893. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1965Google Scholar
  21. Lauer, E.: Über die Keimtemperatur von Ackerunkräutern und deren Einfluß auf die Zusammensetzung von Unkrautgesellschaften. Flora 140, 551–595 (1953)Google Scholar
  22. Lyre, H.H.: Beiträge zur Biologie und Ökologie der Vogelmiere, Stellaria media (L.) Cyr. Diss., Landw. Hochsch. Hohenheim (1957)Google Scholar
  23. Peterson, D.: Stellaria Studien: Zur Zytologie, Genetik, Ökologie und Systematik der Gattung Stellaria, insbesondere der Media-Gruppe. Akad. Abh. Univ. Lund 1936, 277–419 (1936)Google Scholar
  24. Ratcliffe, D.: Adaptation to habitat in a group of annual plants. J. Ecol. 49, 187–203 (1961)Google Scholar
  25. Reinöhl, F.: Die Variation im Andröceum der Stellaria media Cyr. Bot. Zeit. 61, 159–200 (1903)Google Scholar
  26. Roberts, E.H.: Oxidative processes and the control of seed germination. In: Seed ecology (W. Heydecker, ed.), pp. 189–218. London: Butterworths 1973Google Scholar
  27. Roberts, H.A.: Emergence and longevity in cultivated soil of seeds of some annual weeds. Weed Res. 4, 296–307 (1964)Google Scholar
  28. Roberts, H.A., Feast, P.M.: Emergence and longevity of seeds of annual weeds in cultivated and undisturbed soil. J. Appl. Ecol. 10, 133–143 (1973)Google Scholar
  29. Roberts, H.A., Lockett, P.M.: Germination of buried and dry-stored seeds of Stellaria media. Weed Res. 15, 199–204 (1975)Google Scholar
  30. Salisbury, E.: The variation in the reproductive organs of Stellaria media (sensu stricto) and allied species with special regard to their relative frequency and prevalent modes of pollination. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 185, 331–342 (1974)Google Scholar
  31. Steinbauer, G.P., Grigsby, B., Correa, L., Frank, P.: A study of methods for obtaining laboratory germination of certain weed seeds. Proc. Assoc. off. Seed Analysts N. Am. 1954, 48–52 (1955)Google Scholar
  32. Von Abrams, G.J., Hand, M.E.: Seed dormancy in Rosa as a function of climate. Am. J. Bot. 43, 7–12 (1956)Google Scholar
  33. Wareing, P.F., Staden, J. van, Webb, D.P.: Endogenous hormones in the control of seed dormancy. In: Seed ecology (W. Heydecker, ed.), pp. 145–155. London: Butterworths 1973Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. W. van der Vegte
    • 1
  1. 1.Biologisch LaboratoriumVrije UniversiteitAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations