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Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 161–168 | Cite as

Wolf pack spacing: Howling as a territory-independent spacing mechanism in a territorial population

  • Fred H. Harrington
  • L. David Mech
Article

Summary

Howling is a principle means of spacing in wolf populations. The relationship between a pack's responses to howling (replies, movements) and its location within its home range, was studied using human-simulated howling in a territorial population in northeastern Minnesota. The results indicated the responses were independent of the pack's location, or the locations of the pack and playback relation to the territory center. These results indicate that howling serves as a territory-independent spacing mechanism, that will result in the use of exclusive territories when coupled with strong, year-round site attachment, but with floating, exclusive, buffer-areas about migratory packs.

Keywords

Home Range Site Attachment Wolf Population Principle Means Wolf Pack 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fred H. Harrington
    • 1
  • L. David Mech
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Biological SciencesState University of New YorkStony BrookUSA
  2. 2.Patuxent Wildlife Research CenterUS Fish and Wildlife ServiceLaurelUSA

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