Oecologia

, Volume 98, Issue 2, pp 212–220 | Cite as

In situ photosynthetic differentiation of the green algal and the cyanobacterial photobiont in the crustose lichen Placopsis contortuplicata

  • B. Schroeter
Original Paper

Abstract

In situ photosynthetic activity in the green algal and the cyanobacterial photobionts of Placopsis contortuplicata was monitored within the same thallus using chlorophyll a fluorescence methods. It proved possible to show that the response to hydration of the green algal and the cyanobacterial photobionts is different within the same thallus. Measurements of the photochemical efficiency of PS II, Fv/Fm, reveal that in the dry lichen thallus photosynthetic activity could be induced in the green algal photobiont by water vapour uptake, in the cyanobacterial photobiont only if it was hydrated with liquid water. However, rates of apparent electron flow through PS II as well as rates of CO2 gas exchange were suboptimal after hydration with water vapour alone and maximum rates could only be observed when the thallus was saturated with liquid water. The differences in the waterrelated photosynthetic performance and different light response curves of apparent electron transport rate through PS II indicate that the two photobionts act highly independently of each other. It was shown that the cyanobacteria from the cephalodia in P. contortuplicata act as photobiont. The rate of electron flow through PS II was found to be saturated at 1500 μmol photon m−2 s−1, despite a considerable increase of non-photochemical quenching in the green algal photobiont which is lacking in the cyanobacterial photobiont. No evidence of photoinhibition could be found in either photobiont. Pronounced competition between the green algal and the cyanobacterial thallus can be observed in the natural habitat, indicating that the symbiosis in P. contortuplicata should be regarded as a very variable adaptation to the extreme environmental conditions in the maritime Antarctic.

Key words

Antarctica Chlorophyll a fluorescence Cyanobacterial photobiont Green algal photobiont Lichen 

Abbreviations

DR

dark respiration

ETR

apparent rate of electron flow of PS II (=ΔF/Fm′×PFD)

ΔF

difference in yield of fluorescence and maximal Fm′ and steady state Fs under ambient light

Fo

minimum level of fluorescence yield in dark-adapted state

Fo′

minimum level of fluorescence yield after transient darkening and far-red illumination

Fm

maximum level of dark-adapted fluorescence yield

Fm′

maximum yield of fluorescence under ambient light

Fs

yield of fluorescence at steady state

Fv

difference in minimum fluorescence and maximum fluorescence in dark-adapted state

NP

net photosynthesis

NPQ

coefficient for non-photochemical quenching

PAR

photosynthetically active radiation (400–700 nm)

PFD

photon flux density in PAR

PS II

photosystem II

qN

coefficient for non-photochemical quenching

qP

coefficient for photochemical quenching

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Badger MR, Pfanz H, Büdel B, Heber U, Lange OL (1993) Evidence for the functioning of photosynthetic CO2-concentrating mechanisms in lichens containing green algal and cyanobacterial photobionts. Planta 191:59–72Google Scholar
  2. Bolhàr-Nordenkampf HR, Long SP, Baker NR, Öquist G, Schreiber U, Lechner EG (1989) Chlorophyll fluorescence as a probe of the photosynthetic competence of leaves in the field: a review of current instrumentation. Funct Ecol 3:497–514Google Scholar
  3. Büdel B, Lange OL (1991) Water status of green and blue-green phycobinots in lichen thalli after hydration by water vapour uptake: Do they become turgid? Bot Acta 104:361–366Google Scholar
  4. Coxson DS (1987) Effects of desiccation on net photosynthetic activity in the basidiomycete lichen Cora pavonia E. Fries from the cloud/mist zone of the tropical volcano La Soufrière (Gùadeloupe). Bryologist 90:241–245Google Scholar
  5. Demming-Adams B, Adams III WW, Green TGA, Czygan F-C, Lange OL (1990a) Differences in the susceptibility to light stress in two lichens forming a phycosymbiodeme one partner possessing and one lacking the xanthophyll cycle. Oecologia 184:451–456Google Scholar
  6. Demmig-Adams B, Máguas C, Adams III WW, Meyer A, Kilian E, Lange OL (1990b) Effect of high light on the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion in a variety of lichen species with green and blue-green phycobionts. Planta 180:400–409Google Scholar
  7. Genty B, Briantais J-M, Baker N (1989) The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim Biophys Acta 990:87–92Google Scholar
  8. Green TGA, Büdel B, Heber U, Meyer A, Zellner H, Lange OL (1993) Differences in photosynthetic performance between cyanobacterial and green algal components of lichen photosymbiodemes measured in the field. New Physiol 125:723–731Google Scholar
  9. Hawes I, Howard-Williams C, Vincent WF (1992) Desiccation and recovery of Antarctic cyanobacterial mats. Polar Biol 12: 587–594Google Scholar
  10. Inoue M (1991) Ecological notes on the differences in flora and habitat of lichens between the Syowa Station area in continental Antarctic and King George Island in martime Antarctic. Proc NIPR Symp Polar Biol 4:91–106Google Scholar
  11. James PW, Henssen A (1976) The morphological and taxonomic significance of cephalodia. In: Brown DH, Hawksworth DL, Bailey RH (eds) Lichenology. Progress and problems. Academic Press, London New York San Francisco, pp 27–77Google Scholar
  12. Jensen M, Feige GB (1987) The efect of desiccation and light on the 77K chlorophyll fluorescence properties of the lichen Peltigera aphthosa. Bibl Lichenol 25:325–330Google Scholar
  13. Kappen L (1988) Ecophysiological relationships in different climatic regions. In: Galun M (ed) CRC Handbook of lichenology. CRC Press, Boca Raton Florida, pp 37–100Google Scholar
  14. Kappen L (1993) Lichens in the Antarctic region. In: Friedmann EI (ed) Antarctic microbiology. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 433–490Google Scholar
  15. Kappen L, Bölter M, Kühn A (1987) Photosynthetic activity of lichens in natural habitats in the maritime antarctic. In: Peveling E (ed) Progress and problems in lichenology in the eighties. (Bibl Lichenol 25). J Cramer, Berlin Stuttgart, pp 297–312Google Scholar
  16. Kappen L, schroeter B, Sancho LG (1990) Carbon dioxide exchange of Antarctic crustose lichens in situ measured with a CO2/H2O porometer. Oecologia 82:311–316Google Scholar
  17. Krause GH, Weis E (1991) Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis: the basics. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43:313–349Google Scholar
  18. Lamb IM (1947) A monograph of the lichen genus Placopsis Nyl. Lilloa 13:151–288Google Scholar
  19. Lange OL, Kilian E (1985) Reaktivierung der Photosynthese trockener Flechten durch Wasserdampfaufnahme aus dem Luftraum: Artspezifisch unterschiedliches Verhalten. Flora 176:7–23Google Scholar
  20. Lange OL, Tenhunen JD, Harley P, Walz H (1985) Method for field measurements of CO2-exchange. The diurnal changes in net photosynthesis and photosynthetic capacit of lichens under mediterranean climatic conditions. In: Brown DH (ed) Lichen physiology and cell biology. Plenum Press, New York London, pp 23–40Google Scholar
  21. Lange OL, Kilian E, Ziegler H (1986) Water vapour uptake and photosynthesis of lichens: performance differences in species with green and blue-green algae as phycobionts. Oecologia 71: 104–110Google Scholar
  22. Lange OL, Green TGA, Ziegler H (1988) Water status related photosynthesis and carbon isotope discrimination in species of the lichen genus Pseudocyphellaria with green or blue-green photobionts and in photosymbiodemes. Oecologia 75: 494–501Google Scholar
  23. Lange OL, Bilger W, Rimke S, Schreiber U (1989) Chlorophyll fluorescence of lichens containing green and blue-green algae during hydration by water vapour uptake and by addition of liquid water. Bot Acta 102:306–313Google Scholar
  24. Lange OL, Pfanz H, Kilian E, Meyer A (1990a) Effect of low water potential on photosynthesis in intact lichens and their liberated algal components. Planta 182:467–472Google Scholar
  25. Lange OL, Kilian E, Ziegler H (1990b) Photosynthese von Blattflechten mit hygroskopischen Thallusbewegungen bei Befeuchtung durch Wasserdampf oder mit flüssigem Wasser. In: Jahns HM (ed) Contributions in lichenology. In honour of A. Henssen (Bibl Lichenol 38). J Cramer, Berlin Stuttgart, pp 311–323Google Scholar
  26. Lange OL, Büdel B, Meyer A, Kilian E (1993) Further evidence that activation of net photosynthesis by dry cyanobacterial lichens requires liquid water. Lichenologist 25:175–189Google Scholar
  27. Palmqvist K (1993) Photosynthetic CO2-use efficiency in lichens and their isolated photobionts: the possible role of a CO2-concentrating mechanism. Planta 191:48–56Google Scholar
  28. Redon J (1985) Líquenes Antárticos. INACH, Santiago de ChileGoogle Scholar
  29. Renner B, Galloway DJ (1982) Phycosymbiodemes in Pseudocyphellaria in New Zealand. Mycotaxon 16:197–231Google Scholar
  30. Sancho LG, Kappen L, Schroeter B (1990) Primeros datos sobre la flora y vegetacion líquenica de Isla Livingston (Islas Shetland del Sur Antártida). Actas del Symposium Español de Estudios Antárticos Madrid 3:94–99Google Scholar
  31. Schreiber U, Bilger W, Klughammer C, Neubauer C (1988) Application of the PAM fluorometer in stress detection. In: Lichtenthaler KH (ed) Applications of chlorophyll fluorescence. Kluwer Academic, The Hague, pp 151–155Google Scholar
  32. Schroeter B (1991) Untersuchungen zu Primärproduktion und Wasserhaushalt von Flechten der maritimen Antarktis unter besonderer Berücksichtingung von Usnea antarctica DuRietz. Dissertation, Universität KielGoogle Scholar
  33. Schroeter B, Kappen L, Moldaenke C (1991a) Continuous in situ recording of the photosynthetic activity of Antarctic lichens-established methods and a new approach. Lichenologist 23: 253–265Google Scholar
  34. Schroeter B, Jacobsen P, Kappen L (1991b) Thallus moisture and microclimatic control of the CO2-exchange of Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. on Disko Island (West Greenland). Symbiosis 11:131–146Google Scholar
  35. Schroeter B, Green TGA, Seppelt RD, Kappen L (1992) Monitoring photosynthetic activity of crustose lichens using a PAM-2000 fluorescence system. Oecologia 92:457–462Google Scholar
  36. Schroeter B, Green TGA, Kappen L, Seppelt RD (1994) Carbon dioxide exchange at subzero temperatures. Field measurements on Umbilicaria aprina in Antarctica. Cryptogam Bot 4: 233–241Google Scholar
  37. Winter K, Lesch M (1992) Diurnal changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence and carotenoid composition in Opuntia ficus-indica, a CAM plant, and in three C3 species in Portugal during summer. Oecologia 91:505–510Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Schroeter
    • 1
  1. 1.Botanisches InstitutUniversität KielRielGermany

Personalised recommendations