Advertisement

Ultrastructure of vaginal keratinization in estrogen treated immature balb/ccrgl mice

  • R. A. Cooper
  • R. D. Cardiff
  • S. R. Wellings
Article

Summary

In 10-day-old Balb/cCrgl mice, the subcutaneous injection of 0.1 μg of estradiol in distilled water per animal per day resulted in the conversion, over a 4 day period, of the original 3 cell layered cuboidal epithelium to a stratified, multilayered, fully keratinized epithelium. By light microscopy, there was development of a prominent stratum germinativum and of a mucinified surface on the 1st day, followed by the sequential formation of a stratum spinosum, a stratum granulosum, and a stratum corneum. By electron microscopy, the principal early modifications consisted of a marked increase in ribosomes, desmosomes, and 70 Å cytoplasmic filaments, the latter being aggregated into approximately 700 Å fibrils. The subsequent establishment of a keratin layer was preceded by the appearance of keratohyaline granules and the disappearance of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in cells immediately above the stratum spinosum and by the development of a transitional cell layer in which there was progressive aggregation of cytoplasmic filaments and disappearance of nuclei, keratohyaline granules, and free ribosomes. In the upper stratum granulosum, transitional cell layer, and stratum corneum there were distinctive modifications in desmosomal structure (composite and modified desmosomes). The morphological and physiological significance of these observations is discussed.

Keywords

Estrogen Estradiol Fibril Stratum Corneum Sequential Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, E.: The oestrous cycle in the mouse. Amer. J. Anat. 30, 297–371 (1922).Google Scholar
  2. —, and E. A. Doisy: The induction of a sexually mature condition in immature females by injection of the ovarian follicular hormone. Amer. J. Physiol. 69, 577–588 (1924).Google Scholar
  3. Asscher, A. W., and C. J. Turner: Vaginal sulphydryl and disulfide groups during the oestrous cycle of the mouse. Nature (Lond.) 175, 900–901 (1955).Google Scholar
  4. Bartoszewicz, W., and K. Dux: Effects of estrogens on the basement membrane of normal and neoplastic vaginal epithelium in mice. Anat. Rec. 140, 167–181 (1961).Google Scholar
  5. Beaver, D. L.: The hormonal induction of a vaginal leukocytic exudate in the germ-free mouse. Amer. J. Path. 37, 769–773 (1960).Google Scholar
  6. Bell, E.: The skin. In: Organogenesis (R. L. De Hann and H. Ursprung, ed.), p. 361–374. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston Inc. 1965.Google Scholar
  7. Bern, H. A.: Personal communication 1965.Google Scholar
  8. —, M. Alfert, and S. M. Blair: Cytochemical studies of keratin formation and of epithelial metaplasia in the rodent vagina and prostate. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 5, 105–119 (1957).Google Scholar
  9. Bertalanffy, F.D., and C. Lau: Mitotic rates, renewal times, and cytodynamics of the female genital tract epithelia in the rat. Acta anat. (Basel) 54, 39–81 (1963).Google Scholar
  10. Biggers, J. D.: The carbohydrate components of the vagina of the normal and ovariectomized mouse during oestrogenic stimulation. J. Anat. (Lond.) 87, 327–336 (1953).Google Scholar
  11. —, P. J. Claringbold, and M. H. Hardy: The action of oestrogens on the vagina of the mouse in tissue culture. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 131, 497–515 (1956).Google Scholar
  12. Brody, I.: The keratinization of epidermal cells of normal guinea pig skin as revealed by electron microscopy. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 2, 482–511 (1959a).Google Scholar
  13. —: An ultrastructural study on the role of the keratohyalin granules in the keratinization process. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 3, 84–104 (1959 b).Google Scholar
  14. —: The ultrastructure of the tonofibrils in the keratinization process of normal human epidermis. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 4, 264–297 (1960).Google Scholar
  15. —: Different staining methods for the electron-microscopic elucidation of the tonofibrillar differentiation in normal epidermis. In: The epidermis (W. Montagna, and W. C. Lobitz Jr., ed.) p. 251–273. New York: Academic Press 1964.Google Scholar
  16. Burgos, M. H., and G. B. Wislocki: The cyclical changes in the mucosa of the guinea pig's uterus, cervix and vagina and in the sexual skin, investigated by the electron microscope. Endocrinology 63, 106–121 (1958).Google Scholar
  17. Cardiff, R. D., and R. A. Cooper: Unpublished observations 1966.Google Scholar
  18. Caulfield, J. B.: Effects of varying the vehicle for OsO4 in tissue fixation. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 3, 827–830 (1957).Google Scholar
  19. Farquhar, M. G., and G. E. Palade: Cell junctions in amphibian skin. J. Cell Biol. 26, 263–291 (1965).Google Scholar
  20. Freeman, J. A.: Fine structure of the goblet cell mucous secretory process. Anat. Rec. 144, 341–345 (1962).Google Scholar
  21. —: Goblet cell fine structure. Anat. Rec. 154, 121–148 (1966).Google Scholar
  22. Gorski, J., W. D. Noteboom, and J. A. Nicolette: Estrogen control of the synthesis of RNA and protein in the uterus. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 66, Suppl. 1, 91–110 (1965).Google Scholar
  23. Hamilton, T. H.: Sequences of RNA and protein synthesis during early estrogen action. Proc. nat. Acad. sci. (Wash.) 51, 83–89 (1964).Google Scholar
  24. Hanschke, H. J., u. H. Schulz: Elektronenmikroskopische Befunde an Zellen von Vaginal und Portioabstrichen. Arch. Gynäk. 192, 393–411 (1960).Google Scholar
  25. Husbands Jr., M. E., and B. E. Walker: Differentiation of vaginal epithelium in mice given estrogen and thymidine-H3. Anat. Rec. 147, 187–198 (1963).Google Scholar
  26. Juillard, M. T., et P. Delost: Transformations provoquées par l'oestradiol dans la structure du vagin de la Souris nouveau-née. C.R.Soc. Biol. (Paris) 158, 1497–1501 (1964).Google Scholar
  27. Kamell, S. A., and W. B. Atkinson: Effects of ovarian hormones on certain cytoplasmic reactions in tha vaginal epithelium of the mouse. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 68, 537–540 (1948).Google Scholar
  28. Karrer, H. E.: Cell interconnections in normal human cervical epithelium. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 7, 181–184 (1960).Google Scholar
  29. Kelly, D. E.: Fine structure of desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, and an adepidermal globular layer in developing newt epidermis. J. Cell Biol. 28, 51–72 (1966).Google Scholar
  30. Luft, J. H.: Improvements in epoxy resin embedding methods. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 9, 409–414 (1961).Google Scholar
  31. Martin, L.: Growth of the vaginal epithelium of the mouse in tissue culture. J. Endocr. 18, 334–342 (1959).Google Scholar
  32. —: Early vaginal responses in two lines of mice selected, on the basis of vaginal cornification, for high and low sensitivity to the intravaginal application of oestrogens. J. Endocr. 20, 293–298 (1960).Google Scholar
  33. —: The effects of histamine on the vaginal epithelium of the mouse. J. Endocr. 23, 329–340 (1962).Google Scholar
  34. Mercer, E. H., B. L. Munger, G. E. Rogers, and S. I. Roth: A suggested nomenclature for fine-structural components of keratin and keratinlike products of cells. Nature (Lond.) 201, 367–368 (1964).Google Scholar
  35. Merker, H.-J.: Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen über die Oestrogenwirkung auf die Kerne des Vaginalepithels der Ratte. Verh. anat. Ges. (Jena) 58, 329–340 (1962).Google Scholar
  36. Moore, R. J., and T. H. Hamilton: Estrogen-induced formation of uterine ribosomes. Proc. nat. Acad. sci. (Wash.) 52, 439–446 (1964).Google Scholar
  37. Mueller, G. C.: The role of RNA and protein synthesis in estrogen action. In: Mechanisms of hormone action (P. Karlson, ed.), p. 228–239. New York: Academic Press 1965.Google Scholar
  38. Odland, G. F.: Tonofilaments and keratohyalin. In: The epidermis (W. Montagna, and W. C. Lobitz Jr., ed.), p. 237–249. New York: Academic Press 1964.Google Scholar
  39. Perrotta, C. A.: Initiation of cell proliferation in the vaginal and uterine epithelia of the mouse. Amer. J. Anat. 111, 195–204 (1962).Google Scholar
  40. Petry, G., L. Overbeck und W. Vogell: Untersuchungen über den funktionell bedingten Formwandel des Vaginalepithels. Verh. anat. Ges. (Jena) 57, 285–291 (1961 a).Google Scholar
  41. —: Vergleichende elektronen und lichtmikroskopische Untersuchungen am Vaginalepithel in der Schwangerschaft. Z. Zellforsch. 54, 382–401 (1961b).Google Scholar
  42. Pullar, P.: Keratin formation in a chemically defined medium. J. Path. Bact. 88, 203–212 (1964).Google Scholar
  43. Reynolds, E. S.: The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electronopaque stain in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 17, 208–212 (1963).Google Scholar
  44. Rhodin, J. A. G., and E. J. Reith: Ultrastructure of keratin in oral mucosa, skin, esophagus, claw, and hair. In: Fundamentals of keratinization (E. O. Butcher and R. F. Sognnaes, ed.), No 70, p. 61–94. Washington, D. C.: AAAS Publication 1962.Google Scholar
  45. Rich, A., S. Penman, Y. Becker, J. Darnell, and C. Hall: Polyribosomes: size in normal and polio-infected HeLa cells. Science 142, 1658–1663 (1963).Google Scholar
  46. Richardson, K. C., L. Jarett, and E. H. Finke: Embedding in epoxy resins for ultrathin sectioning in electron microscopy. Stain Technol. 35, 313–323 (1960).Google Scholar
  47. Roig de Vargas-Linares, C. E., and M. H. Burgos: Contribution to the study of leukocyte migrations. Quart. J. exp. Physiol. 49 129–133 (1964).Google Scholar
  48. —: Junctional complexes of the hamster vagina, under normal and experimental conditions. Quart. J. exp. Physiol. 50, 481–488 (1965).Google Scholar
  49. Roth, S. I., and W. H. Clark Jr.: Ultrastructural evidence related to the mechanism of keratin synthesis. In: The epidermis (W. Montagna, and W. C. Lobitz Jr., ed.), p. 303–337. New York: Academic Press 1964.Google Scholar
  50. Snell, G. D.: Reproduction. In: Biology of the laboratory mouse, first ed., p. 55–88. New York: Dover Publ. Inc. 1956 (reprinting of the original Blakiston Company 1941 ed.).Google Scholar
  51. Sognnaes, R. F., and J. T. Albright: Preliminary observations on the fine structure of oral mucosa. Anat. Rec. 126, 225–239 (1956).Google Scholar
  52. Stone, G. M.: The radioactive compounds in various tissues of the ovariectomised mouse following the systemic administration of tritiated oestradiol and oestrone. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 47, 433–443 (1964).Google Scholar
  53. Takasugi, N., and H. A. Bern: Tissue changes in mice with persistent vaginal cornification induced by early postnatal treatment with estrogen. J. nat. Cancer Inst. 33, 855–865 (1964).Google Scholar
  54. —, and K. B. Deome: Persistent vaginal cornification in mice. Science 138, 438–439 (1962).Google Scholar
  55. Trier, J. S., and C. E. Rubin: Electron microscopy of the small intestine: A review. Gastroenterology 49, 574–603 (1965).Google Scholar
  56. Walker, B. E.: Renewal of cell populations in the female mouse. Amer. J. Anat. 107, 95–105 (1960).Google Scholar
  57. Warner, J. R., and A. Rich: The number of soluble RNA molecules on reticulocyte polyribosomes. Proc. nat. Acad. Sa. (Wash.) 51, 1134–1141 (1964).Google Scholar
  58. Watson, M. L.: Staining of tissue sections for electron microscopy with heavy metals. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 4, 475–478 (1958).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Cooper
    • 1
  • R. D. Cardiff
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. R. Wellings
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of Oregon Medical SchoolPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Cancer Research Genetics LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations