Advertisement

Biological Cybernetics

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 137–142 | Cite as

Joit torque and energy patterns in normal gait

  • D. A. Winter
  • D. G. E. Robertson
Article

Abstract

Experiments were conducted on normal level gait to determine the synergistic patterns present in the forces causing joint moments and those associated with the generation, absorption and transfer of mechanical energy. The following generalizations can be made about the patterns: (i) During swing phase three forces (gravitational, muscle and knee joint acceleration) are responsible for shank rotation, and are shown to act together during both acceleration and deceleration.—(ii) The patterns of generation, absorption and transfer of mechanical energy at the joints are detailed. These patterns demonstrate inter-segment transfers of energy through the joint centres, and through the muscles, as well as the more recognized generation and absorption by the muscles themselves.—As a result of the complexity shown in these patterns it is cautioned that fundamental relationships that may have been derived from controlled biomechanical experiments (such as horizontal flexion and extension of the forearm) are not likely to apply to more normal movements such as gait.

Keywords

Torque Normal Level Normal Movement Mechanical Energy Swing Phase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bigland, B., Lippold, O.C.J.: The relation between force, velocity and integrated electrical activity in human muscles. J. Physiol. 123, 214–224 (1954)Google Scholar
  2. Bouisset, S., Maton, B.: Quantitative relationships between surface EMG and intramuscular electromyographic activity in voluntary movement. Am. J. Phys. Med. 51, 285–295 (1972)Google Scholar
  3. Bouisset, S., Goubel, F.: Integrated electromyographical activity and muscle work. J. Appl. Physiol. 35, 695–702 (1973)Google Scholar
  4. Cappozzo, A., Figura, F., Marchetti, M., Pedotti, A.: The interplay of muscular and external forces in human ambulation. J. Biomech 9, 35–43 (1976)Google Scholar
  5. Pezzack, J.C., Norman, R.W., Winter, D.A.: An assessment of derivative determining techniques used for motion analysis. J. Biomech. 10, 377–382 (1977)Google Scholar
  6. Quanbury, A.O., Winter, D.A., Reimer, G.D.: Instantaneous power flow in body segments during walking. J. Human Movement Stud. 1, 59–67 (1975)Google Scholar
  7. Robertson, D.G.E.: The measurement of mechanical energy and power during normal level walking. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada (1977)Google Scholar
  8. Winter, D.A., Greenlaw, R.K., Hobson, D.A.: Television-computer analysis of kinematics of human gait. Computers and Biomed. Res. 5, 498–504 (1972)Google Scholar
  9. Winter, D.A., Sidwall, H.G., Hobson, D.A.: Measurement and reduction of noise in kinematics of locomotion. J. Biomech. 7, 157–159 (1974)Google Scholar
  10. Winter, D.A., Quanbury, A.O., Reimer, G.D.: Instantaneous energy and power flow in gait of normals. In: Biomechanics V, Vol. A, pp. 334–340. Komi, P., ed. Baltimore: University Park Press 1976aGoogle Scholar
  11. Winter, D.A., Quanbury, A.O., Reimer, G.D.: Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J. Biomech. 9, 253–257 (1976b)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. A. Winter
    • 1
  • D. G. E. Robertson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of KinesiologyUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations