Biological Cybernetics

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 59–69 | Cite as

Self-organized formation of topologically correct feature maps

  • Teuvo Kohonen
Article

Abstract

This work contains a theoretical study and computer simulations of a new self-organizing process. The principal discovery is that in a simple network of adaptive physical elements which receives signals from a primary event space, the signal representations are automatically mapped onto a set of output responses in such a way that the responses acquire the same topological order as that of the primary events. In other words, a principle has been discovered which facilitates the automatic formation of topologically correct maps of features of observable events. The basic self-organizing system is a one- or two-dimensional array of processing units resembling a network of threshold-logic units, and characterized by short-range lateral feedback between neighbouring units. Several types of computer simulations are used to demonstrate the ordering process as well as the conditions under which it fails.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amari, S.-I.: Topographic organization of nerve fields. Bull. Math. Biol. 42, 339–364 (1980)Google Scholar
  2. Hebb, D.: Organization of behavior. New York: Wiley 1949Google Scholar
  3. Kohonen, T.: Associative memory — a system-theoretical approach. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1977, 1978Google Scholar
  4. Kohonen, T.: Automatic formation of topological maps of patterns in a self-organizing system. In: Proc. 2nd Scand. Conf. on Image Analysis, pp. 214–220, Oja, E., Simula, O. (eds.). Espoo: Suomen Hahmontunnistustutkimuksen Seura 1981Google Scholar
  5. Levy, W.: Limiting characteristics of a candidate elementary memory unit: LTP studies of entorhinal-dentate synapses. (To appear in a book based on the workshop “Synaptic modification, neuron selectivity, and nervous system organization”, Brown University, Rhode Island, Nov. 16–19, 1980)Google Scholar
  6. Lynch, G.S., Rose, G., Gall, C.M.: In: Functions of the septohippocampal system, pp. 5–19. Amsterdam: Ciba Foundation, Elsevier 1978Google Scholar
  7. Malsburg, Ch. von der: Self-organization of orientation sensitive cells in the striate cortex. Kybernetik 14, 85–100 (1973)Google Scholar
  8. Malsburg, Ch. von der, Willshaw, D.J.: How to label nerve cells so that they can interconnect in an ordered fashion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74, 5176–5178 (1977)Google Scholar
  9. Mountcastle, V.B.: Modality and topographic properties of single neurons of cat's somatic sensory cortex. J. Neurophys. 20, 408–434 (1957)Google Scholar
  10. Oja, E.: A simplified neuron model as a principal component analyzer (1981) (to be published)Google Scholar
  11. Rauschecker, J.P., Singer, W.: Changes in the circuitry of the kitten's visual cortex are gated by postsynaptic activity. Nature 280, 58–60 (1979)Google Scholar
  12. Reale, R.A., Imig, T.J.: Tonotopic organization in auditory cortex of the cat. J. Comp. Neurol. 192, 265–291 (1980)Google Scholar
  13. Rosenblatt, F.: Principles of neurodynamics: Perceptrons and the theory of brain mechanisms. Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books 1961Google Scholar
  14. Singer, W., Rauschecker, J., Werth, R.: The effect of monocular exposure to temporal contrasts on ocular dominance in kittens. Brain Res. 134, 568–572 (1977)Google Scholar
  15. Swindale, N.V.: A model for the formation of ocular dominance stripes. Proc. R. Soc. B 208, 243–264 (1980)Google Scholar
  16. Towe, A.: Notes on the hypothesis of columnar organization in somatosensory cerebral cortex. Brain Behav. Evol. 11, 16–47 (1975)Google Scholar
  17. Willshaw, D.J., Malsburg, Ch. von der: How patterned neural connections can be set up by self-organization. Proc. R. Soc. B 194, 431–445 (1976)Google Scholar
  18. Willshaw, D.J., Malsburg, Ch. von der: A marker induction mechanism for the establishment of ordered neural mappings; its application to the retino-tectal problem. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 287, 203–243 (1979)Google Scholar
  19. Wilson, H.R., Cowan, J.D.: A mathematical theory of the functional dynamics of cortical and thalamic nervous tissue. Kybernetik 13, 55–80 (1973)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teuvo Kohonen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Technical PhysicsHelsinki University of TechnologyEspooFinland

Personalised recommendations