Advertisement

Biology and Fertility of Soils

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 1–6 | Cite as

Increase in nitrous oxide production in soil induced by ammonium and organic carbon

  • D. W. Bergstrom
  • M. Tenuta
  • E. G. Beauchamp
Original Paper

Abstract

We observed that soil cores collected in the field containing relatively high NH inf4 sup+ and C substrate levels produced relatively large quantities of N2O. A series of laboratory experiments confirmed that the addition of NH inf4 sup+ and glucose to soil increase N2O production under aerobic conditions. Denitrifying enzyme activity was also increased by the addition of NH inf4 sup+ and glucose. Furthermore, NH inf4 sup+ and glocose additions increased the production of N2O in the presence of C2H2. Therefore, we concluded that denitrification was the most likely source of N2O production. Denitrification was not, however, directly affected by NH inf4 sup+ in anaerobic soil slurries, although the use of C substrate increased. In the presence of a high substrate C concentration, N2O production by denitrifiers may be affected by NO inf3 sup- supplied from NH inf4 sup+ through nitrification. Alternatively, N2O may be produced during mixotrophic and heterotrophic growth of nitrifiers. The results indicated that the NH inf4 sup+ concentration, in addition to NO inf3 sup- , C substrate, and O2 concentrations, is important for predicting N2O production and denitrification under field conditions.

Key words

Ammonium Denitrification Nitrification Nitrous oxide Organic carbon Acetylene 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abeliovich A, Vonshak A (1992) Anaerobic metabolism of Nitrosomonas europaea. Arch Microbiol 158:267–270Google Scholar
  2. Aulakh MS, Doran JW, Walters DT, Mosier AR, Francis DD (1991) Crop residue type and placement effects on denitrification and mineralization. Soil Sci Soc Am J 55:1020–1025Google Scholar
  3. Ambus P, Mosier A, Christensen S (1992) Nitrogen turnover rates in a riparian fen determined by 15N dilution. Biol Fertil Soils 14:230–236Google Scholar
  4. Bergstrom DW (1992) Relationships between denitrification rate, denitrifying enzyme activity and predictive soil properties. PhD thesis, University of Guelph, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  5. Castignetti D, Hollocher TC (1984) Heterotrophic nitrification among denitrifiers. Appl Environ Microbiol 47:620–623Google Scholar
  6. Colbourn P (1993) Limits to denitrification in two pasture soils in a temperate maritime climate. Agric Ecosyst Environ 43:49–68Google Scholar
  7. Davidson EA (1992) Sources of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following wetting of dry soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 56:95–102Google Scholar
  8. Eichner MJ (1990) Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized soils: Summary of available data. J Environ Qual 19:272–280Google Scholar
  9. Focht DD (1992) Diffusional constraints on microbial processes in soil. Soil Sci 154:300–307Google Scholar
  10. Groffman PM (1984) Nitrification and denitrification in conventional and no-tillage soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 49:329–334Google Scholar
  11. Hutchinson GL, Guenzi WD, Livingston GP (1993) Soil water controls on aerobic soil emissions of gaseous nitrogen oxides. Soil Biol Biochem 25:1–9Google Scholar
  12. Hynes RK, Knowles R (1982) Effect of acetylene on autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification. Can J Microbiol 28:334–340Google Scholar
  13. Martin K, Parsons LL, Murray RE, Smith MS (1988) Dynamics of soil denitrifier populations: Relationships between enzyme activity, most-probable-number counts, and actual N gas loss. Appl Environ Microbiol 54:2711–2716Google Scholar
  14. Moraghan JT, Buresh R (1977) Correction for dissolved nitrous oxide in nitrogen studies. Soil Sci Soc Am J 41:1201–1202Google Scholar
  15. Peterjohn WT (1991) Denitrification: Enzyme content and activity in desert soils. Soil Biol Biochem 23:845–855Google Scholar
  16. Petersen SO, Henriksen K, Blackburn TH (1991) Coupled nitrification-denitrification associated with liquid manure in a gel-stabilized model system. Biol Fertil Soils 12:19–27Google Scholar
  17. Robertson LA, Kuenen JG (1990) Combined heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification in Thiosphaera pantotropha and other bacteria. Antonie Leeuwenhoek J Microbiol Serol 57:139–152Google Scholar
  18. Simarmata T, Benckiser G, Ottow JCG (1993) Effect of an increasing carbon: nitrate-N ratio on the reliability of acetylene in blocking the N2O-reductase activity of denitrifying bacteria in soil. Biol Fertil Soils 15:107–112Google Scholar
  19. Staley TE, Caskey WH, Boyer DG (1990) Soil denitrification and nitrification potentials during the growing season relative to tillage. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54:1602–1608Google Scholar
  20. Stuven R, Vollmer M, Bock E (1992) The impact of organic matter on nitric oxide formation by Nitrosomonas europaea. Arch Microbiol 158:439–443Google Scholar
  21. Tel DA, Heseltine C (1990) The analyses of KCl soil extracts for nitrate, nitrite and ammonium using a TRAACS 800 analyzer. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 21:1681–1688Google Scholar
  22. Tiedje JM (1988) Ecology of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. In: Zehnder AJB (ed) Biology of anaerobic microorganisms. John Wiley, NY, pp 174–244Google Scholar
  23. Tortoso AC, Hutchinson GL (1990) Contributions of autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrifiers to soil NO and N2O emissions. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:1799–1805Google Scholar
  24. Walter HM, Keeney DR, Fillery IR (1979) Inhibition of nitrification by acetylene. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43:195–196Google Scholar
  25. Yoshinari T, Knowles R (1976) Acetylene inhibition of nitrous oxide reduction by denitrifying bacteria. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 69:705–710Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. W. Bergstrom
    • 1
  • M. Tenuta
    • 1
  • E. G. Beauchamp
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Land Resource ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations