Advertisement

Biology and Fertility of Soils

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 321–326 | Cite as

Nitrification of ammonium in different components of a flooded rice soil system

  • T. K. AdhyaEmail author
  • P. Patnaik
  • V. R. Rao
  • N. Sethunathan
Original Paper

Abstract

Nitrification associated with the various components [subsurface soil from unplanted and planted (rhizosphere) fields, standing water and surface soil from planted and unplanted fields and leaf sheath suspensions] of submerged rice paddies was examined in incubation experiments with solutions inoculated with soil or water samples. Substantial nitrification occurred in all samples, standing water and surface soil samples in particular, during their 40-day incubation with NH 4 + −N. Almost all the NH 4 + −N, disappeared during incubation with standing water, was recovered as NO inf3 sup- −N. This, compared to 70–80% from all soil samples and only 29% from leaf sheath suspensions. Significant loss of nitrogen, especially from leaf sheath suspensions, is probably due to nitrification-denitrification as evidenced by its complete recovery in the presence of N-Serve. Nitrification potential of the soil and water samples varied with the crop growth stage and was more pronounced at tillering and panicle inititation stages than at other stages. Nitrification potential of samples from green-manure-amended plots was distinctly less than that of samples from control and urea-amended plots. Most probable number (MPN) estimates of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria were always higher in surface soil in both planted and unplanted plots at all stages of crop growth.

Key words

Nitrification Flooded rice soils Rhizosphere Rice variety Crop growth stage Organic amendment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander M (1982) Most probable number method for microbial populations. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of soil analysis, part 2, 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, pp 815–820Google Scholar
  2. Armstrong W (1979) Aeration in higher plants. Adv Bot Res 7:226–333Google Scholar
  3. Barnes H, Folkard AR (1951) The determination of nitrite. Analyst 76:559–603Google Scholar
  4. Barraquio WL, De Guzman BH, Watanabe I (1982) Population of aerobic heterotrophic nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with wetland and dryland rice. Appl Environ Microbiol 43:124–128Google Scholar
  5. Bremner JM (1965) Inorganic forms of nitrogen. In: Black CA, Evans DD, White JL, Ensminger LE, Clark FE (eds) Methods of soil analysis, part 2, 1st ed. American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, pp 1179–1237Google Scholar
  6. Engelaar WMHG, Bodelier PLE, Laanbroek HJ, Blom CWPM (1991) Nitrification in the rhizosphere of a flooding-resistant and a flooding non-resistant Rumex species under drained and waterlogged conditions. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 86:33–42Google Scholar
  7. Flessa H, Fischer WR (1992) Plant-induced changes in the redox potentials of rice rhizospheres. Plant and Soil 143:55–60Google Scholar
  8. Hadas A, Feigenbaum S, Feigin A, Portnoy R (1986) Nitrification rates in profiles of differently managed soil types. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:633–639Google Scholar
  9. Jackson ML (1973) Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  10. Matulewich VA, Strom PF, Finstein MS (1975) Length of incubation for enumerating nitrifying bacteria present in various environments. Appl Microbiol 29:265–268Google Scholar
  11. Neyra CA, Döbereiner J, Lalande R, Knowles R (1977) Denitrification by N2-fixing Spirillum lipoferum. Can J Microbiol 23:300–305Google Scholar
  12. Nugroho SG, Kuwatsuka S (1990) Concurrent observation of several processes of nitrogen metabolism in soil amended with organic materials. I. Effect of different organic materials on ammonification, nitrification, denitrification and N2 fixation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 36:215–224Google Scholar
  13. Panda S, Sharmila M, Ramanand K, Panda D, Sethunathan N (1988) Persistence of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and carbofuran applied to surface and subsurface layers of a flooded soil. Pestic Sci 23:199–207Google Scholar
  14. Ponnamperuma FN (1972) The chemistry of submerged soils. Adv Agron 24:29–96Google Scholar
  15. Ramakrishna C, Sethunathan N (1982) Stimulation of autotrophic ammonium oxidation in rice rhizosphere soil by the insecticide carbofuran. Appl Environ Microbiol 44:1–4Google Scholar
  16. Reddy KR, Patrick WH Jr. (1984) Nitrogen transformation and loss in flooded soils and sediments. CRC Crit Rev Environ Control 13:273–309Google Scholar
  17. Reddy KR, Patrick WH Jr. (1986) Fate of fertilizer nitrogen in rice root zone. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:649–651Google Scholar
  18. Sarathchandra SU (1978) Nitrification activities of some New Zealand soils and the effect of some clay types on nitrification. N Z J Agric Res 21:615–621Google Scholar
  19. Schmidt EL, Belser LW (1982) Nitrifying bacteria. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of soil analysis, part 2, 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, pp 1027–1042Google Scholar
  20. Sethunathan N, Rao VR, Adhya TK, Raghu K (1983) Microbiology of rice soils. CRC Crit Rev Microbiol 10:125–172Google Scholar
  21. Uehara Y, Wada E, Takai Y (1978) Nitrification and denitrification in the surface layers of submerged soils. Proc 11th Int Soil Sci Cong, Edmonton, Canada 1:299–300Google Scholar
  22. Xu JG, Heerman DA, Wang Y (1993) Fertilizer and temperature effects on urea hydrolysis. Biol Fertil Soils 16:63–65Google Scholar
  23. Yoshida T, Ancajas AR (1973) The atmospheric nitrogen fixation in the rice rhizosphere. Soil Biol Biochem 5:153–155Google Scholar
  24. Zhi-Wu H, Broadbent FE (1988) The efficiency of potassium nitrate and urea fertilizers on rice in flooded soil. Soil Sci 146:461–465Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. K. Adhya
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. Patnaik
    • 1
  • V. R. Rao
    • 1
  • N. Sethunathan
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Soil Science and MicrobiologyCentral Rice Research InstituteCuttackIndia

Personalised recommendations