, Volume 107, Issue 4, pp 504–512

Components of pollination effectiveness in Psychotria suerrensis, a tropical distylous shrub

  • Judy L. Stone
Plant Animal Interactions


In this paper I report components of effectiveness for pollinators of a tropical distylous shrub, Psychotria suerrensis (Rubiaceae), which is visited by a variety of bees, wasps, and butterflies, and by two species of hummingbirds. In the field, I measured the following components of effectiveness: frequency of visits, evenness of visits across plants, and diurnal pattern of visits. I also used flight-cage experiments to compare pollentransfer abilities of euglossine bees and heliconiid butterflies. Euglossine bees visited more frequently, visited earlier in the day, and visited a higher proportion of plants in the population than did other taxa. In flight cage experiments, bees and butterflies transferred similar amounts of pollen overall, but bees transferred significantly more inter-morph (compatible) pollen. For each component measured, euglossine bees appeared to be the most effective pollinators.

Key words

Distyly Euglossine bee Heliconiid butterfly Pollinator effectiveness Psychotria 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judy L. Stone
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and EvolutionState University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

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