Molecular and General Genetics MGG

, Volume 190, Issue 3, pp 481–486 | Cite as

The genetics and specificity of the constutive excision repair system of Bacillus subtilis

  • Bradford M. Friedman
  • Ronald E. Yasbin


An isogenic set of DNA repair-proficient and-deficient strains of B. subtilis, cured of all prophages, were constructed and analyzed for their sensitivities to selected mutagens. The results demonstrated that the lethal damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) were repaired by the bacterial excision and/or recombination repair systems. In contrast, the lethal damages caused by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) were removed from the DNA by the recombination repair system of the bacteria, and not by the excision repair system.

Significantly, the bacteria required both a functional recombination repair system and a functional excision repair system in order to remove the DNA damage caused by the bifunctional alkylating agent mitomycin C (MC).


Bacillus Bacillus Subtilis Mitomycin Alkylating Agent Repair System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Boyce RP, Howard-Flanders P (1964) Release of ultraviolet light-induced thymine dimers from DNA in E. coli K-12. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 51:293–300Google Scholar
  2. Cole RS, Levitan D, Sinden RR (1976) Removal of psoralen interstrand crosslinks from DNA of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol 103:39–59Google Scholar
  3. Dubnau D, Cirgliano C (1974) Genetic characterization of recombination-deficient mutants of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol 117:488–493Google Scholar
  4. Duncan J, Hamilton L, Friedberg EC (1976) Enzymatic degradation of uracilcontaining DNA. II. Evidence for N-glycosidase and nuclease activities in unfractionated extracts of Bacillus subtilis. J Virol 19:338–345Google Scholar
  5. Endo H (1971) In: Endo H, Ono T, Sugimura T (eds) Chemistry and biological actions of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, p 32Google Scholar
  6. Fields PI, Yasbin RE (1982) DNA repair in Bacillus subtilis: An inducible dimer specific W-reactivation system. Mol Gen Genet 190:475–480Google Scholar
  7. Fishbein L, Flamm WG, Falk HL (1970) In: Chemical mutagens, environmental effects of biological systems. Academic Press, Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Friedberg EC, Anderson CTM, Bonura T, Cone R, Radany EH, Reynolds RJ (1981) Recent developments in the enzymology of excision repair of DNA. Proc Nucleic Acids Res Mol Biol 26:197–215Google Scholar
  9. Grossman L, Riazzudin S, Haseltin WA, Lindan CP (1978) Nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 43:947–955Google Scholar
  10. Hadden CT (1976) Postirradiation recovery dependent on the uvr-1 locus in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol 128:317–324Google Scholar
  11. Hanawalt PC, Cooper PK, Ganesan AK, Smith CA (1979) DNA repair in bacteria and mammalian cells. Annu Rev Biochem 48:783–836Google Scholar
  12. Haseltine WA, Gordon LK, Lindan CP, Graftstrom RH, Shaper NL, Grossman L (1980) Cleavage of pyrimidine dimers in specific DNA sequences by a pyrimidine dimer DNA-glycosylase of M. luteus. Nature 285:634–641Google Scholar
  13. Iyer VN, Szybalski W (1963) A molecular mechanism of mitomycin action: linking of complementary DNA strands. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 50:355–362Google Scholar
  14. Karran P, Lindahl T (1978) Enzymatic excitation of free hypoxanthine from polydeoxynucleotides and DNA containing deoxyinosine monophosphate residues. J Biol Chem 253:5877–5879Google Scholar
  15. Kondo S, Ichikawa H, Iwo K, Kato T (1970) Base change mutagenesis and prophage induction in strains of Escherichia coli with different DNA repair capacities. Genetics 66:187–217Google Scholar
  16. Kondo S, Kato T (1968) Photoreactivation of mutation and killing in Escherichia coli. Adv Biol Med Phys 12:283–297Google Scholar
  17. Laipis PJ, Ganesan AT (1972) A deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase I deficient mutant of B. subtilis. J Biol Chem 247:5867–5971Google Scholar
  18. Lehman AR (1980) Early steps in excision repair. Nature 285:614–615Google Scholar
  19. Lindahl T (1974) An N-glycosidase from Escherichia coli that releases free uracil from DNA containing deaminated cytosine residues. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:3649–3653Google Scholar
  20. Lindahl T (1979) DNA glycosylases, endonucleases for apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, and base excision-repair. Prog Nucleic Acids Res Mol Biol 22:135–188Google Scholar
  21. Lindahl T (1982) DNA repair enzymes. Annu Rev Biochem 51:61–87Google Scholar
  22. Munakata N (1977) Mapping of the genes controlling excision repair of pyrimidine photoproducts in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Gen Genet 156:49–54Google Scholar
  23. Nester EW, Shafer M, Lederberg J (1963) Gene linkage in DNA transfer: A cluster of genes concerned with aromatic biosynthesis in Bacillus subutilis. Genetics 48:529–551Google Scholar
  24. Radany EH, Friedberg EC (1980) A pyrimidine dimer DNA glycosylase activity associated with the v gene product of bacteriophage T4. Nature 286:182–185Google Scholar
  25. Riklis E (1965) Studies on mechanisms of repair of ultraviolet-irradiated viral and bacterial DNA in vivo and in vitro. Can J Biochem 43:1207–1219Google Scholar
  26. Seawell PC, Smith CA, Ganesan AK (1980) den V gene of bacteriophage T4 determines a DNA glycosylase specific for pyrimidine dimers in DNA. J Virol 35:790–797Google Scholar
  27. Seeberg E (1978) Reconstruction of an E. coli repair endonuclease activity from the separated uvrA + and uvrB + /uvrC + gene products. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:2569–2573Google Scholar
  28. Seeberg E, Nissen-Meyer J, Strike P (1976) Incision of ultraviolet-irradiated DNA by extracts of E. coli requires three different gene products. Nature 263:524–526Google Scholar
  29. Setlow RB, Carrier WL (1964) The disappearance of thymine dimers from DNA: an error correcting mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 51:226–231Google Scholar
  30. Setlow R, Setlow JK (1972) Effects of radiation on polynucleotides. Annu Rev Biophys 1:293–346Google Scholar
  31. Spizizen J (1958) Transformation of biochemically deficient strains of Bacillus subtitilis by deoxyribonucleate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 44:1072–1078Google Scholar
  32. Tada M, Tada M, Takahashi T (1967) Interaction of a carcinogen, 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide with nucleic acids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 29:469–477Google Scholar
  33. Tada M, Tada M (1971) Interaction of a carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide with nucleic acids: chemical degradation of the aducts. Chem Biol Interact 3:225–229Google Scholar
  34. Tada M, Tada M (1972) Enzymatic activation of the carcinogen 4-hydroxyamino-quinoline-1-oxide and its interaction with cellular macromolecules. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 46:1025–1032Google Scholar
  35. Tada M, Tada M (1976a) Main binding sites of the carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide in nucleic acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 45:558–566Google Scholar
  36. Tada M, Tada M (1976b) In: Magee PN, Takeyama S, Sugimura T, Matsuhima T (eds) Fundamentals in cancer prevention. Univ of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, p 217Google Scholar
  37. Warner HR, Demple BF, Deutsch WA, Kane CM, Linn S (1980) Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases in repair of pyrimidine dimers and other lesions in DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:4602–4606Google Scholar
  38. Yasbin RE (1977) DNA repair in Bacillus subtilis. I. The presence of an inducible system. Mol Gen Genet 153:211–218Google Scholar
  39. Yasbin RE, Fernwalt JD, Fields PI (1979) DNA repair in Bacillus subtilis: excision repair capacity of competent cells. J Bacteriol 137:391–396Google Scholar
  40. Yasbin RE, Fields PI, Anderson BJ (1980) Properties of Bacillus subtilis 168 derivatives freed of their natural prophages. Gene 12:155–159Google Scholar
  41. Yasbin RE, Anderson BJ, Sutherland BM (1981) Ability of Bacillus subtilis protoplasts to repair irradiated bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid via acquired and natural enzymatic systems. J Bacteriol 147:947–953Google Scholar
  42. Young FE, Wilson GA (1975) Chromosomal map of Bacillus subtilis. In: Gerhardt P, Costilow RN, Sadoff HL (eds) Spores VI. Am Soc Microbiol, Washington, DC, p 596Google Scholar
  43. Youngs DA, Smith KC (1977) The involvement of polynucleotide ligase in the repair of UV-induced DNA damage in Escherichia coli L-12 cells. Mol Gen Genet 152:37–41Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH & Co. KG 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradford M. Friedman
    • 1
  • Ronald E. Yasbin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of Rochester, School of Medicine and DentistryRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations