The hagfish retina: Fine structure of retinal cells in Myxine glutinosa, L., with special reference to receptor and epithelial cells

  • Raj Holmberg
Article

Summary

The retina of the atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa, displays at the ultrastructural level several structures which in the retina of higher vertebrates are criteria of function. Agranular vesicles, which strongly resemble synaptic vesicles, are found at the receptor base, either evenly distributed in the cytoplasm or aggregated near membrane densities. Moreover, the cytoplasm is rich in glycogen and mitochondria which indicate a metabolic activity.

The epithelial cells differ from pigment epithelial cells in higher vertebrates essentially in two respects. The basal surface does not display infoldings and there are no pigment granules.

Observations are also reported on the inner layers of the retina. Different types of cell bodies and processes are described as well as follicle-like structure.

Key-Words

Retina Myxine glutinosa Epithelial cells Receptor cells Ultrastructure 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adam, H., Czihak, G.: Arbeitsmethoden der makroskopischen und mikroskopischen Anatomie. Stuttgart: G. Fischer 1964.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, B. M.: The eye of Bdellostoma stouti. Anat. Anz. 26, 208–211 (1905).Google Scholar
  3. Cohen, A. I.: The fine structure of the visual receptors of the pigeon. Exp. Eye Res. 2, 88–97 (1963).Google Scholar
  4. —: New evidence supporting the linkage to extracellular space of outer segment saccules of frog cones but not rods. J. Cell Biol. 37, 424–444 (1968).Google Scholar
  5. Dücker, M.: Über die Augen der Zyklostomen. Jena. Z. Naturw. 60, 471–528 (1924).Google Scholar
  6. Eakin, R. M.: Differentiation of rods and cones in total darkness. J. Cell Biol. 25, 162–165 (1965).Google Scholar
  7. Fawcett, D. W.: An atlas of fine structure. The cell, its organelles and inclusions. Philadelphia: Saunders 1966.Google Scholar
  8. Hartwig, H. G.: Über Rezeptortypen in der Retina von Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii. Z. Zellforsch. 91, 411–428 (1968).Google Scholar
  9. Holmberg, K.: Ultrastructure and response to background illumination of the melanophores of the atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa L. Gen. comp. Endocr. 10, 421–428 (1968).Google Scholar
  10. —: Hagfish eye: ultrastructure of retinal cells. Acta zool. (Stockh.) 50, 179–183 (1969).Google Scholar
  11. Kobayashi, H.: On the photo-perceptive function in the eye of the hagfish, Myxine garmani Jordan et Snyder. J. Shimonoseki Coll. Fish. 13, 141–151 (1964).Google Scholar
  12. Kohl, C.: Rudimentäre Wirbelthieraugen. Zoologica (Stuttg.) 13, 48–51; 14, 193–204 (1892).Google Scholar
  13. Lillie, R. D.: Histopathologic technique and practical histochemistry. New York: The Blakiston Co. 1954.Google Scholar
  14. Matsusaka, T.: The intracytoplasmic channel in pigment epithelial cells of the chick retina. Z. Zellforsch. 81, 100–113 (1967).Google Scholar
  15. Millonig, G.: Advantage of a phosphate buffer for OsO4 solution in fixation. J. appl. Physiol. 32, 1637 (1961).Google Scholar
  16. Newth, D. R., Ross, D. M.: On the reaction to light of Myxine glutinosa L. J. exp. Biol. 32, 4–21 (1955).Google Scholar
  17. Öhman, P.: A fluorescence microscopic study of the retina of the river lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis, and the atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa. Acta zool. (Stockh.) 51, 179–181 (1970).Google Scholar
  18. Oksche, A., Kirschstein, H.: Die Ultrastruktur der Sinneszellen im Pinealorgan von Phoxinus laevis L. Z. Zellforsch. 78, 151–166 (1967).Google Scholar
  19. —: Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen am Pinealorgan von Passer domesticus. Z. Zellforsch. 102, 214–241 (1969).Google Scholar
  20. —, Morita, Y., Vaupel-von Harnack, M.: Zur Feinstruktur und Funktion des Pinealorgans der Taube (Columba livia). Z. Zellforsch. 102, 1–30 (1969).Google Scholar
  21. Petit, A.: Ultrastructure de la rétine de l'œil pariétal d'un lacertilien, Anguis fragilis. Z. Zellforsch. 92, 70–93 (1968).Google Scholar
  22. Rabinovitch, M., Mota, I., Yoneda, S.: Note on the histochemical localization of glycogen and pentosepolynucleotides in the visual cells of the chick (Gallus gallus). Quart. J. micr. Sci. 95, 5–9 (1954).Google Scholar
  23. Reynolds, E. S.: The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 17, 208–212 (1963).Google Scholar
  24. Röhlich, P.: Sensitivity of regenerating and degenerating planarian photoreceptors to osmium fixation. Z. Zellforsch. 73, 165–173 (1966).Google Scholar
  25. Rüdeberg, C.: Light and electron microscopic studies on the pineal organ of the dogfish, Scylliorhinus canicula L. Z. Zellforsch. 96, 548–581 (1969).Google Scholar
  26. Sabatini, D. D., Bensch, K., Barrnett, R. J.: Cytochemistry and electron microscopy. The preservation of cellular ultrastructure and enzymatic activity by aldehyde fixation. J. Cell Biol. 17, 19–58 (1963).Google Scholar
  27. Sidman, R. L., Wislocki, G. B.: Histochemical observations on rods and cones in retinas of vertebrates. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 2, 413–425 (1954).Google Scholar
  28. Stempak, J. G., Ward, R. T.: An improved staining method for electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 22, 697–701 (1964).Google Scholar
  29. Tormey, J. McD.: Differences in membrane configuration between osmium tetroxide-fixed and glutaraldehyde-fixed ciliary epithelium. J. Cell Biol. 23, 658–664 (1964).Google Scholar
  30. Ueck, M.: Ultrastruktur des pinealen Sinnesapparates bei einigen Pipidae und Discoglossidae. Z. Zellforsch. 92, 452–476 (1968).Google Scholar
  31. Walls, G. L.: The vertebrate eye and its adaptive radiation. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan: Cranbrook 1942.Google Scholar
  32. Watson, M. L.: Staining of tissue sections for electron microscopy with heavy metals. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 4, 475–478 (1958).Google Scholar
  33. Witkovsky, P., Dowling, J. E.: Synaptic relationships in the plexiform layers of the carp retina. Z. Zellforsch. 100, 60–82 (1969).Google Scholar
  34. Wood, R. L., Luft, J. H.: The influence of buffer systems on fixation with osmium tetroxide. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 12, 22–45 (1965).Google Scholar
  35. Yamada, E.: The fine structure of the paraboloid in the turtle retina as revealed by electron microscopy. Anat. Rec. 136, 352 (1960).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raj Holmberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of StockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations