Oecologia

, Volume 103, Issue 3, pp 337–342 | Cite as

Patterns of success in passeriform bird introductions on Saint Helena

  • Richard K. Brooke
  • Julie L. Lockwood
  • Michael P. Moulton
Original Paper

Abstract

Ecologists have long attempted to predict the success of species that are introduced into foreign environments. Some have emphasized qualities intrinsic to the species themselves, whereas others have argued that extrinsic forces such as competition may be more important. We test some of the predictions made by both the extrinsic and intrinsic hypotheses using passeriform birds introduced onto the island of Saint Helena. We found direct evidence that extrinsic forces are more important predictors of successful invasion. Species introduced when fewer other species were present were more likely to be successful. In a direct test of the alternative hypothesis that intrinsic forces play a more prominent role in success or failure, we found a tendency for species which successfully established on Saint Helena to be also successful when introduced elsewhere. However, the vast majority of species unsuccessful at establishing on Saint Helena had probabilities of success outside Saint Helena of 50% or greater, making this result somewhat equivocal. Finally, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that species that are successful early are those that are intrinsically superior invaders. These results are consistent with similar analyses of the introduced avian communities on Oahu, Tahiti, and Bermuda.

Key words

Saint Helena Introductions Competition Birds Community 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baker E (1868) The birds of St. Helena. Zoologist [Ser 2] 3: 1472–1476Google Scholar
  2. Barnes J (1817) A tour through the Island of St. Helena during a residence of twelve years. Richardson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Basilewsky P (1970) Vertèbres — oiseaux. Ann Mus R Afr Cent Ser Quarto Zool 181:86–128Google Scholar
  4. Benson CW (1950) A contribution to the ornithology of St. Helena, and other notes from a sea-voyage. Ibis 92:75–83Google Scholar
  5. Brooke TH (1808) A history of the Island of St. Helena from its discovery by the Portuguese to the year 1806. Black, Parry and Kingsbury, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruggen AC van (1958) Warming of the Atlantic Ocean (in Dutch). Levende Natuur 61:35–44Google Scholar
  7. Connell JH (1980) Diversity and coevolution of competitors, or the ghost of competition past. Oikos 35:131–138Google Scholar
  8. Elton CS (1958) The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Faaborg J (1977) Metabolic rates, resources, and the occurrence of nonpasserines in terrestrial avian communities. Am Nat 111: 903–916Google Scholar
  10. Hartog JC den (1984) A note on the avifauna of St. Helena, South. Atlantic Ocean. Bull Br Ornithol Club 104:91–96Google Scholar
  11. Haydock EL (1954) A survey of the birds of St. Helena Island. Ostrich 25:62–75Google Scholar
  12. Huckle CH (1924) Birds of Ascension and St. Helena. Ibis [Ser 11] 6:818–821Google Scholar
  13. Janisch HR (1908) Extracts from the St. Helena records and chronicles of Cape commanders (1673–1835). Guardian Printing Office, JamestownGoogle Scholar
  14. Layard EL (1867) Letter to the editor. Ibis [Ser 2] 3:248–252Google Scholar
  15. Layard EL (1871) Letter to the editor. Ibis [Ser 3] 1:103–107Google Scholar
  16. Lever C (1987) Naturalized birds of the world. Longman Scientific and Technical, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Lockwood JL, Moulton MP (1994) Ecomorphological pattern in Bermuda birds: the influence of competition and implications for nature preserves. Evol Ecol 8:53–60Google Scholar
  18. Lockwood JL, Moulton MP, Anderson SK (1993) Morphological assortment and the assembly of introduced passeriforms on oceanic islands: Tahiti versus Oahu. Am Nat 141:398–408Google Scholar
  19. Long JL (1981) Introduced birds of the world. David and Charles, Newton AbbotGoogle Scholar
  20. Loveridge A (1977) Notes on vertebrates of St. Helena 1952–1972. Manuscript in archives of Colonial Government of St. Helena, JamestownGoogle Scholar
  21. Melliss JC (1870) Notes on birds of the Island of St. Helena. Ibis [Ser 2] 6:97–101Google Scholar
  22. Melliss JC (1871) Letter to the editor. Ibis [Ser 3] 1:367–370Google Scholar
  23. Moreau RE (1931) Some birds on a voyage. Ibis [Ser 13] 1:778–781Google Scholar
  24. Moulton MP (1985) Morphological similarity and coexistence of congeners: an experimental test with introduced Hawaiian birds. Oikos 44:301–305Google Scholar
  25. Moulton MP, Pimm SL (1983) The introduced Hawaiian avifauna: biogeographical evidence for competition. Am Nat 121: 669–690Google Scholar
  26. Moulton MP, Pimm SL (1986a) The extent of competition in shaping an introduced avifauna. In: Diamond J, Case TJ (eds) Community ecology. Harper & Row, New York, pp 80–97Google Scholar
  27. Moulton MP, Pimm SL (1986b) Species introductions to Hawaii. In: Mooney HA, Drake JA (eds) Ecology of biological invasions of North America and Hawaii. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 231–249Google Scholar
  28. Moulton MP, Pimm SL (1987) Morphological assortment in introduced Hawaiian passerines. Evol Ecol 1:113–124Google Scholar
  29. Moulton MP (1993) The all-or-none pattern in introduced Hawaiian passerines: the role of competition sustained. Am Nat 141:301–305Google Scholar
  30. Phillips R (1805) A description of the Island of St. Helena. Thorne, LondonGoogle Scholar
  31. Pimm SL (1989) Theories of predicting success and impact of introduced species. In: Drake JA, Mooney HA, Castri F di, Groves RH, Kruger FJ, Rejmanek M, Williamson M (eds) Biological invasions: a global perspective. Wiley, New York, pp 351–367Google Scholar
  32. Ricklefs RE, Travis J (1980) A morphological approach to the study of avian community organization. Auk 97:321–338Google Scholar
  33. Simberloff D (1992) Extinction, survival, and effects of birds introduced to the Mascarenes. Acta Oecol 13:663–678Google Scholar
  34. Simberloff D, Boecklen W (1991) Patterns of extinction in the introduced Hawaiian avifauna: a re-examination of the role of competition. Am Nat 138:300–327Google Scholar
  35. Teale PL (1981) St. Helena 1502–1659 before the English East India Company. University of Natal, DurbanGoogle Scholar
  36. Watson GE (1966) The Chukar Partridge (Aves) of Saint Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean. Proc Biol Soc Wash 79:179–182Google Scholar
  37. Winterbottom JM (1936) Five African voyages. Ostrich 7:90–98Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard K. Brooke
    • 1
  • Julie L. Lockwood
    • 2
  • Michael P. Moulton
    • 3
  1. 1.Percy FitzPatrick Institue of African OrnithologyUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Wildlife and Range SciencesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations