, Volume 79, Issue 1, pp 105–114 | Cite as

Sex chromosomes and origin of males and sex mosaics of the parthenogenetic stick insect Carausius morosus Br.

  • Laas P. Pijnacker
  • Margriet A. Ferwerda


The chromosome complements of sporadic males and masculinized females of the thelytokous phasmid Carausius morosus Br. could be analysed in spermatogonia and ovarian follicle cells. Masculinized females with ovaries, ovotestes or testes have the female chromosome number, i.e., 61 autosomes and three sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes, one being longer than the other two, are metacentric. In one masculinized female with testes the three sex chromosomes were different, apparently through a reciprocal translocation. The masculinized females are considered to be intersexes (phenotypic sex determination). The chromosome complement of males differs from that of females by lacking either one of the sex chromosomes or only a segment of one of these chromosomes (genotypic sex determination). The deleted sex chromosomes appear as acrocentrics and may have arisen through a chiasma between a translocated segment in one sex chromosome and its untransposed homologous region in another sex chromosome. One apparently telocentric sex chromosome may have originated from centric fission together with loss of the other arm. The sex chromosomes are positively heteropycntoic in the psermatogonia, also in those of masculinized females. En bloc heterochromatinization of the sex chromosomes, which seems to be under the direct or indirect control of one or more sites on the sex chromosomes themselves, functions in sex determination. The sex determination does not give a decisive answer to the question whether di-, tri-, or tetraploidy is involved.


Ovarian Follicle Homologous Region Follicle Cell Reciprocal Translocation Chromosome Complement 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laas P. Pijnacker
    • 1
  • Margriet A. Ferwerda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeneticsUniversity of Groningen, Biological CentreAA HarenThe Netherlands

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