Archive for History of Exact Sciences

, Volume 1, Issue 5, pp 459–479 | Cite as

Max Planck and the beginnings of the quantum theory

  • Martin J. Klein
Article

Keywords

Entropy Quantum Theory Kinetic Theory Energy Quantum Grave Mode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    There are three such retrospective accounts: (a) Planck's Nobel Prize Lecture: Die Entstehung und bisherige Entwicklung der Quantentheorie (Leipzig 1920); English translation in Planck's: A Survey of Physics (New York n.d.); (b) Naturwissenschaften 31, 153–159 (1943); (c) Wissenschaftliche Selbstbiographie (Leipzig, 1948); English translation in Planck's Scientific Autobiography (New York, 1949). — All three are reprinted in Max Planck: Physikalische Abhandlungen und Vorträge, Bd. III. Braunschweig 1958. This collection will be referred to throughout as Phys. Abh.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Rosenfeld L.: La première phase de l'évolution de la Théorie des Quanta. Osiris 2, 149–196 (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Rosenfeld, L.: Max Planck et la définition statistique de l'entropie, in Max-Planck-Festschrift 1958 (Berlin, 1958), pp. 203–211.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    See E. T. Whittaker, A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity (London, 1951), vol. 1, p. 371.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Planck, M.: Ref. 1(c) English transl. pp. 34–35.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Stefan, J.: Wien. Ber. 79, 391 (1879).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Boltzmann, L.: Wied. Annalen 22, 291 (1884). See also M. Planck, The Theory of Heat Radiation (Reprinted New York, 1959), Chapter 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Wien, W.: Wied. Annalen 52, 132 (1894).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Wien, W.: Wied. Annalen 58, 662 (1896).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Lord Rayleigh: Phil. Mag. 49, 539 (1900). Reprinted in his Scientific Papers (Cambridge, 1903), vol. IV, pp. 483–485.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Planck, M.: S.-B. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1897), 57; — Phys. Abh. Bd. I. S. 493.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Boltzmann, L.: S.-B. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1897), 660, 1016.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Planck, M.: S.-B. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1899), 440; — Phys. Abh. Bd. I, S. 560. Especially S. 575–581. — The theorem in the form quoted in the text appears in Bd. I, S. 724.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Planck, M.: Phys. Abh. Bd. I, S. 597.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Planck, M.: Ann. Phys. 1, 69 (1900); — Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Lummer, O., & E. Pringsheim: Verh. dtsch. Physik. Ges. 1, 215 (1899).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Thiesen, M.: Verh. dtsch. Physik. Ges. 2, 37 (1900).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    See reference 1 (b). Planck, M.: Phys. Abh., Bd. III, S. 262.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    See Planck, M.: Phys. Abh., Bd. III, S. 404.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Planck, M.: Verh. dtsch. Physik. Ges. 2, 202 (1900); — Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 687.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Planck, M.: Reference 1(c). English translation p. 40. Phys. Abh., Bd. III, S. 394.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Lummer, O., & E. Jahnke: Ann. Phys. 3, 288 (1900).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Rubens, H., & F. Kurlbaum: S.-B. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1900), 929.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Planck, M.: Verh. dtsch. Physik. Ges. 2, 237 (1900); — Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 698.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Planck, M.: Reference 1 (c). English translation p. 32. Phys. Abh., Bd. III, S. 387.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Planck, M.: Wied. Ann. 30, 562 (1887); — Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 196.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Planck, M.: Z. phys. Chem. 8, 647 (1891); — Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 372.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Planck, M.: Treatise on Thermodynamics (Reprint of English translation of Seventh German Edition, New York, 1945) p. vii.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Planck, M.: Reference 1(a). English translation p. 166; — Phys. Abh., Bd. III, S. 125.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Planck, M.: Ann. Phys. 4, 553 (1901); — Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Planck, M.: Ann. Phys. 4, 564 (1901); — Phys. Abh., Bd. I, S. 728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    See Millikan, R.A.: The Electron (Chicago 1917).Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Perrin, J.: Les Preuves de la Réalité Moléculaire, in La Théorie du Rayonnement et les Quanta, edit. by P. Langevin & M. de Broglie, pp. 153–250 (Paris 1912).Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Boltzmann, L.: Wien. Ber. 76, 373 (1877). Reprinted in his Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Bd. II, S. 164 (Leipzig 1909).Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    See the discussion in R. Dugas, La Théorie Physique au sens de Boltzmann (Neuchâtel, 1959), especially Ch. 6 (Seconde Partie) and Ch. 4 (Troisième Partie).Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Rosenfeld, L.: Reference [2],CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Ehrenfest, P.: Ann. Phys. 36, 91 (1911).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Ehrenfest, P., & H. Kamerlingh Onnes: Proc. Amsterdam Acad. 17, 870 (1914). The two preceding papers are reprinted in P. Ehrenfest, Collected Scientific Papers, ed. by M. J. Klein (Amsterdam, 1959), on pages 185 and 353 respectively.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    See Klein, M. J.: Proc. Amsterdam Acad. B 62, 41 (1959).Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Lord Rayleigh: Nature 72, 54 (1905).Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Lord Rayleigh, Nature 72, 243 (1905).Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Jeans, J.: Nature 72, 293 (1905).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    Ehrenfest, P.: Phys. Z. 15, 657 (1914). See also his article in Naturwissenschaften, 11, 543 (1923). Both are reprinted in his Collected Scientific Papers, pages 347 and 463.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    See Dugas: Reference 35, Chap. 6–8 (Première Partie) and Chap. 5 (Troisième Partie).Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Boltzmann, L.: Vorlesungen über Gastheorie, Bd. II, S. V. (Leipzig 1898).Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Planck, M.: Reference 1(a). English translation p. 167. Phys. Abh., Bd. III, S. 126.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Einstein, A.: Ann. Phys. 17, 132 (1905).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Einstein, A.: Philosopher-Scientist, edit. by P. A. Schilpp, p. 45 (New York 1949).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin J. Klein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsCase Institute of TechnologyCleveland

Personalised recommendations