Chromosoma

, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 205–222 | Cite as

Repeated sequence DNA relationships in four cereal genomes

  • Richard B. Flavell
  • Jürgen Rimpau
  • Derek B. Smith
Article

Abstract

The effect of DNA fragment size on the extent of hybridisation that occurs between repeated sequence DNAs from oats, barley, wheat and rye has been investigated. The extent of hybridisation is very dependent on fragment size, at least over the range of 200 to 1000 nucleotides. This is because only a fraction of each fragment forms duplex DNA during renaturation. From these results estimates of the proportions of repeated sequences of each of the cereal genomes that are homologous with repeated sequences in the other species have been determined and a phylogenetic tree of cereal evolution constructed on the basis of the repeated sequence DNA homologies. It is proposed that wheat and rye diverged after their common ancestor had diverged from the ancestor of barley. This was preceded by the divergence of the common ancestor of wheat, rye and barley and the ancestor of oats. Once introduced in Gramineae evolution most families of repeated sequences appear to have been maintained in all subsequently diverging species. — The repeated sequences of oats, barley, wheat and rye have been divided into Groups based upon their presence or absence in different species. Repeated sequences of related families are more closely related to one another within a species than between species. It is suggested that this is because repeated sequences have been involved in many rounds of amplification or quantitative change via unequal crossing over during species divergence in cereal evolution.

References

  1. Bell, G.D.H.: The comparative phylogeny of the temperate cereal. In: Essays in crop plant evolution (J. Hutchinson, ed.), pp. 70–102. Cambridge: University Press, Cambridge, England 1965Google Scholar
  2. Bendich, A.J., McCarthy, B.J.: DNA comparisons among barley, oats, rye and wheat. Genetics 65, 545–566 (1970)Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.B.: Nuclear DNA amounts in Angiosperms. Phil. Trans. roy. Soc. (Lond.) B 274, 227–274 (1976)Google Scholar
  4. Bonner, T.I.: Reduction in rate of DNA reassociation by sequence divergence. J. molec. Biol. 81, 123–135 (1973)Google Scholar
  5. Bonner, T.I.: Hairpin-forming sequences in mammalian DNA. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book 73, 1079–1088 (1974)Google Scholar
  6. Botcham, M.R.: Bovine satellite 1 DNA consists of repetitive units 1,400 base pairs in length. Nature (Lond.) 251, 288–292 (1974)Google Scholar
  7. Britten, R.J., Davidson, E.H.: Studies on nucleic acid reassociation kinetics: Empirical equations describing DNA reassociation. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 73, 415–419 (1976)Google Scholar
  8. Britten, R.J., Kohne, D.E.: Repeated sequences in DNA. Science 161, 529–540 (1968)Google Scholar
  9. Burgi, E., Hershey, A.D.: Sedimentation rate as a measure of molecular weight of DNA. Biophys. J. 3, 309–321 (1963)Google Scholar
  10. Chooi, W.Y.: Comparison of the DNA of six Vicia species by the method of DNA-DNA hybridisation. Genetics 68, 213–230 (1971)Google Scholar
  11. Cooke, H.J.: Evolution of the long range structure of satellite DNAs in the genus Apodemus. J. molec. Biol. 94, 87–99 (1975)Google Scholar
  12. Davidson, E.H., Hough, B.R., Amenson, C.S., Britten, R.J.: General interspersion of repetitive with non-repetitive sequence elements in the DNA of Xenopus. J. molec. Biol. 77, 1–23 (1973)Google Scholar
  13. Flavell, R.B., Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.B., Smith, D.B.: Genome size and the proportion of repeated sequence DNA in plants. Biochem. Genet. 12, 257–269 (1974)Google Scholar
  14. Flavell, R.B., Smith, D.B.: Nucleotide sequence organisation in the wheat genome. Heredity 37, 231–252 (1976)Google Scholar
  15. Goldberg, R.B., Bemis, W.P., Siegel, A.: Nucleic acid hybridisation studies within the genus Cucurbita. Genetics 72, 253–266 (1972)Google Scholar
  16. Hourcade, D., Dressler, P., Wolfson, J.: The amplification of ribosomal RNA genes involves a rolling circle intermediate. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 70, 2926–2930 (1973)Google Scholar
  17. Huguet, T., Jouanin, L., Bazetoux, S.: Occurrence of palindromic sequences in wheat DNA. Plant Sci. Letters 5, 379–385 (1975)Google Scholar
  18. Mizuno, S., Andrews, C., Macgregor, H.C.: Interspecific “common” repetitive DNA sequences in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Chromosoma (Berl.) 58, 1–31 (1976)Google Scholar
  19. McCarthy, B.J., Farquhar, M.N.: The rate of change of DNA in evolution. Brookhaven Symp. Biol. 23, 1–44 (1972)Google Scholar
  20. McConaughty, B.C., Laird, C.D., McCarthy, B.J.: Nucleic Acid Reassociation in Formamide. Biochemistry 8, 3289–3295 (1969)Google Scholar
  21. Rice, N.R.: Change in repeated DNA in evolution. Brookhaven Symp. Biol. 23, 44–79 (1972)Google Scholar
  22. Rice, N. and Esposito, P.: Relatedness among several hamsters. Carnegie Inst. Year Book 72, 200–204 (1973)Google Scholar
  23. Rice, N.R. and Straus, N.A.: Evolution of repeated sequences in the genus Mus. Carnegie Inst. Year Book 71, 264–266 (1972)Google Scholar
  24. Smith, D.B., Flavell, R.B.: The relatedness and evolution of repeated nucleotide sequences in the DNA of some Gramineae species. Biochem. Genet. 12, 243–256 (1974)Google Scholar
  25. Smith, D.B., Flavell, R.B.: Characterisation of the wheat genome by renaturation kinetics. Chromosoma (Berl.) 50, 223–242 (1975)Google Scholar
  26. Smith, D.B., Flavell, R.B.: Nucleotide sequence organisation in the rye genome. Biochim. biophys Acta (Amst.) 474, 82–97 (1977)Google Scholar
  27. Smith, D.B., Rimpau, J., Flavell, R.B.: Interspersion of different repeated sequences in the wheat genome revealed by interspecies DNA/DNA hybridisation. Nucleic Acid Res. 3, 2811–2825 (1976)Google Scholar
  28. Smith, G.P.: Unequal crossover and the evolution of multigene families. Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. quantitative Biol. 38, 507–514 (1973)Google Scholar
  29. Smith, G.P.: Evolution of repeated DNA sequences by unequal crossover. Science 191, 528–535 (1976)Google Scholar
  30. Smith, M.J., Britten, R.J., Davidson, E.H.: Studies on nucleic acid reassociation kinetics. Reactivity of single stranded tails in DNA-DNA renaturation. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash) 72, 4805–4809 (1975)Google Scholar
  31. Southern, E.M.: Long range periodicity in mouse satellite DNA. J. molec. Biol. 94, 51–69 (1975)Google Scholar
  32. Stein, D.B., Thompson, W.F.: DNA hybridisation and evolutionary relationships in three Osmunda species. Science 189, 888–890 (1975)Google Scholar
  33. Straus, N.A.: Comparative DNA renaturation kinetics in amphibians. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 68, 799–802 (1971)Google Scholar
  34. Straus, N.A.: Reassociation of Bean DNA. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book 71, 257–259 (1972)Google Scholar
  35. Studier, F.W.: Sedimentation studies of the size and shape of DNA. J. molec. Biol. 11, 373–390 (1965)Google Scholar
  36. Ullman, J.S., McCarthy, B.J.: The relationship between mismatched base pairs and the thermal stability of DNA duplexes. Biochim. biophys. Acta (Amst.) 294, 405–415 (1973)Google Scholar
  37. Wells, R.D., Buchi, H., Kossel, H., Outsuka, E., Khorana, H.G.: Studies on polynucleotides. LXX: Synthetic deoxyribopolynucleotides as templates for the DNA polymerase of Escherichia coli: DNA-like polymers containing repeating tetranucleotide sequences. J. molec. Biol. 27, 265–272 (1967)Google Scholar
  38. Wilson, D.A., Thomas, C.A.: Palindromes in Chromosomes. J. molec. Biol. 84, 115–144 (1974)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard B. Flavell
    • 1
  • Jürgen Rimpau
    • 1
  • Derek B. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of CytogeneticsPlant Breeding InstituteTrumpingtonEngland
  2. 2.Institut für Pflanzenzüchtung der Universität GöttingenGöttingenFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations