Oecologia

, Volume 98, Issue 1, pp 8–14 | Cite as

Trap-nesting bees and wasps colonizing set-aside fields: succession and body size, management by cutting and sowing

  • A. Gathmann
  • H.-J. Greiler
  • T. Tscharntke
Original Paper

Abstract

Trap-nesting bees and wasps (Hymenoptera Aculeata) colonizing crop and fallow fields in an agricultural landscape were studied using 20 sown fields (pea, barley, rye, clover-grass mixtures, Phacelia tanacetifolia) and 20 fields with naturally developed vegetation (1- and 2-year old fields, both mown and unmown, and old meadows). Fourteen species of Apoidea, 4 of Sphecidae, 1 of Eumenidae and 4 of parasitoids were reared from reed nests exposed in these 40 fields of 10 field-types. Fields with naturally developed vegetation had twice as many species as sown fields, due to the distribution pattern of the 14 bee species, whereas the 9 predatory species (wasps and parasitoids) showed a rather uniform distribution. None of the trap-nesting bees were found in Phacelia fields, despite contrasting expectations of beekeepers. Old meadows showed a particularly high abundance and species richness, since only 10% of all traps were exposed, but 32% of all bee nests were sampled in old meadows, including 4 bee species that were not found elsewhere. Accordingly, species richness of fields with naturally developed vegetation showed a significant increase with age. Variability in Hymenoptera species numbers could be explained by corresponding differences in plant species numbers. The alternative hypothesis that field size or field connectivity influenced species richness was not supported. Habitats with great floral diversity appeared to offer better and richer food resources for the flower-visiting bees, whereas food availability apparently did not influence predatory wasps. The bees Osmia caerulescens and Megachile versicolor that had colonized early-successional fields took twice as long to provision cells as those that colonized late-successional meadows characterized by a greater plant species richness. In contrast, the eumenid wasp Ancistrocerus gazella took a similar period of time to provision cells in both field types. In addition, bee and wasp species of plant-species-poor fields were on average significantly larger than those of plant-species-rich fields. Thus, body size appeared to be a good predictor of colonization ability. Management by cutting greatly increased plant species richness in early-successional set-aside fields and thus doubled species richness of bees. Cutting of early-successional habitats can be expected to benefit insects and plants in general, whereas older grassland should show the greatest insect diversity when both mown and unmown parts are present.

Key words

Colonization Succession Body size Hymenoptera Aculeata Set-aside 

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Copyright information

© Springer Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Gathmann
    • 1
  • H.-J. Greiler
    • 1
  • T. Tscharntke
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachgebiet AgrarökologieUniversitätGöttingenGermany

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