Advertisement

Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry

, Volume 351, Issue 1, pp 98–109 | Cite as

Isomer-specific determination of 79 polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDE) in cod liver oils, chlorophenols and in a fly ash

  • Joachim Kurz
  • Karlheinz Ballschmiter
Original Papers Other Matrices

Abstract

The occurrence of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) has been investigated in two different cod liver oils produced in 1985 and 1993, respectively, from North-Atlantic fish. These samples mirror the distribution of PCDEs among other persistent organochlorine compounds in the marine environment. To elucidate the input of PCDEs in the environment, five possible sources of PCDEs have been analyzed, namely two wood preserving formulations containing approximately 10% pentachlorophenol, two technical chlorophenol products, and one fly ash from a municipal waste incinerator. The determination has been based on 106 available PCDE congeners. During sample preparation a 2-(l-pyrenyl)ethyldimethylsilylated silica column has been used in the normal phase mode to separate the PCDEs from possible PCDF interferences. The PCDEs have been quantified by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on a SE 54 capillary column using electron ionization and selected ion monitoring. The total amount of PCDEs in 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol have been determined to be 213 mg/kg. The lowest concentrations of PCDEs have been found in the more recently produced cod liver oil (sum PCDEs: 49 μg/kg) and in the fly ash sample (sum PCDEs: 93 µg/kg), respectively. The isomer-specific analysis has been employed to characterize the relationship between possible sources and the PCDEs found in the environment. PCDEs, like PCBs, can be indicator molecules for the global pollution of the environment.

Keywords

PCBs Chlorophenol Diphenyl Ether Pentachlorophenol Organochlorine Compound 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Nilsson CA, Renberg L (1974) J Chromatogr 89:325–333Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Paasivirta J, Tarhunen J, Soikkeli J (1986) Chemosphere 15:1429–1433Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Becker M, Phillips T, Safe S (1991) Toxicol Environ Chem 33:189–200Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coburn JA, Comba M (1981) Association of Analytical Chemists, Spring Workship, Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stafford CJ (1983) Chemosphere 12:1487–1495Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Koistinen J, Koivusaari J, Nuuja I, Passivirta J (1993) Organohalogen Compounds 1:329–332Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koistinen J, Vuorinen PJ, Paasivirta J (1993) Chemosphere 27:2365–2380Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stonley JS, Crumer PH, Ayling RE, Thornburg KR, Remmers JC, Breem JJ, Schwemmberger J (1990) Chemosphere 20:981–985Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Williams DT, Kennedy B, LeBel GL (1991) Chemosphere 23:601–608Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Norström A, Andersson K, Rappe C (1977) Chemosphere 6:241–248Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Choundry GG, Sundstrom G, Ruzo LO, Hutzinger O (1977) J Agric Food Chem 25:1371–1376Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lindahl R, Rappe C, Buser HR (1980) Chemosphere 9:351–361Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Safe S (1992) Chemosphere 25:61–64Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kurz J (1994) Dr. rer. nat. Thesis, University of UlmGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ballschmiter K, Zell M (1980) Fresenius Z. Anal Chem 302:20–31Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ballschmiter K, Mennel A, Buyten J (1993) Fresenius J Anal Chem 346:396–402Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ryan JJ, Lizotte R, Newsome WH (1984) J Chromatogr 303:351–360Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Huestis SY, Sergeant DB (1992) Chemosphere 24:537–545Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barnhart ER, Ashley DL, Reddy W, Patterson DG (1986) HRC & CC 9:528–530Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barnhart ER, Patterson DG, Tanaka N, Araki M (1988) J Chromatogr 445:145–154Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kimata K, Hosoya K, Tanaka N, Araki T, Patterson DG (1992) J Chromatogr 595:77–88Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wells DE, Echarri IJ (1992) Int J Environ Anal Chem 47:75–97Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Haglund P, Asplund L, Jarnberg U, Jansson B (1990) Chemosphere 20:887–894Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nilsson CA, Norström A (1977) Chemosphere 6:599–607Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ballschmiter K, Zoller W, Scholz C, Nottrodt A (1983) Chemosphere 12:585–594Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kurz J, Ballschmiter K (1994) Fresenius J Anal Chem 349:533–537Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schantz MM, Parris RM, Kurz J, Ballschmiter K, Wise SA (1993) Fresenius J Anal Chem 346:766–778Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zell K, Ballschmiter K (1980) Fresenius Z Anal Chem 304:337–349Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Borlakoglu JT, Haegele KD (1991) Comp Biochem Physicol 100C:327–338Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boon JP, Reijnders PJH, Dols J, Wensvoort P, Hillebrand MTJ (1987) Aquat Toxicol 10:307–324Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ahlborg UG, Becking GC, Birnbaum LS, Brouwer A, Derks HJGM, Feeley M, Golor G, Hanberg A, Larsen JC, Liem AKD, Safe SH, Schlatter C, Waern F, Younes M, Yrjanheikki E (1994) Chemosphere 28:1049–1067Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joachim Kurz
    • 1
  • Karlheinz Ballschmiter
    • 1
  1. 1.Abteilung Analytische Chemie und UmweltchemieUniversität UlmUlm/DonauGermany

Personalised recommendations