Advertisement

Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry

, Volume 337, Issue 2, pp 150–154 | Cite as

The evolution of scientific methods

  • Erhard Oeser
Original Papers

Summary

Scientific knowledge may be regarded as a reversal of common sense knowledge, as it does not primarily serve the preservation of life, but the acquisition of “objective knowledge”. All the same, our innate cognition apparatus can be transcended only by aid of the apparatus itself, by a repetition of the original procedure. This means that a scientific method has the same quasicircular structure as the elementary mechanism of trial and error-elimination that is observable already by the lowest animals. A scientific method, however, is distinguished by being a consciously developed supraindividual mechanism for self-correction, that does not only eliminate incorrect information but also stores correct information. The reconstruction of the historical development of this supraindividual mechanism for self-correction depicts the evolution of the scientific method.

Keywords

Physical Chemistry Analytical Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Historical Development Scientific Knowledge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Darwin C (1986) The descent of man, 2nd edn MurrayGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Spencer H (1862) First principles, Sect 138Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spencer H (1870) Principles of psychology, vol 1, 2nd edn, Sect 206, pp 461–462Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mach E (1911) Prinzipien der Wärmelehre, Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Candolle A (1911) Zur Geschichte der Wissenschaften und der Gelehrten. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Popper KR (1972) Objective knowledge. Clarendon Press, Oxford; Oeser E (1987) Psychozoikum, Evolution und Mechanismus der menschlichen Erkenntnisfähigkeit. Parey, Berlin HamburgGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berger P, Luckmann T (1966) The social construction of reality. Doubleday, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Oeser E (1976) Wissenschaft und Information, vol. 3. Oldenbourg, Vienna MunichGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Oeser E (1988) Das Abenteuer der kollektiven Vernunft. Evolution und Involution der Wissenschaft. Parey, Berlin HamburgGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Einstein A (1956) Lettres à Maurice Solovine. Gauthier Villars, ParisGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Oeser E (1979) Wissenschaftstheorie als Rekonstruktion der Wissenschaftsgeschichte, vol 2. Oldenbourg, Vienna MunichGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Popper KR (1984) Logik der Forschung. Mohr, TübingenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erhard Oeser
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für WissenschaftstheorieUniversität WienWienAustria

Personalised recommendations