Advertisement

Oecologia

, Volume 93, Issue 3, pp 374–382 | Cite as

Nitrogen and carbohydrate storage in biennials originating from habitats of different resource availability

  • T. Steinlein
  • H. Heilmeier
  • E.-D. Schulze
Original Papers

Abstract

Four biennial species (Arctium tomentosum, Cirsium vulgare, Dipsacus sylvester and Daucus carota) which originate from habitats of different nutrient availability were investigated in a 2-year experiment in a twofactorial structured block design varying light (natural daylight versus shading) and fertilizer addition. The experiment was designed to study storage as reserve formation (competing with growth) or as accumulation (see Chapin et al. 1990). We show that (i) the previous definitions of storage excluded an important process, namely the formation of storage tissue. Depending on species, storage tissue and the filling process can be either a process of reserve formation, or a process of accumulation. (ii) In species representing low-resource habitats, the formation of a storage structure competes with other growth processes. Growth of storage tissue and filling with storage products is an accumulation process only in the high-resource plant Arctium tomentosum. We interpret the structural growth of low-resource plants in terms of the evolutionary history of these species, which have closely related woody species in the Mediterranean area. (iii) The use of storage products for early leaf growth determines the biomass development in the second season and the competitive ability of this species during growth with perennial species. (iv) The high-resource plant Arctium has higher biomass development under all conditions, i.e. plants of low-resource habitats are not superior under low-resource conditions. The main difference between high- and low-resource plants is that low-resource plants initiate flowering at a lower total plant internal pool size of available resources.

Key words

Storage Accumulation Reserve formation Storage structure Biennial plants 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ågren GI (1985) Theory for growth of plants derived from the nitrogen productivity concept. Physiol Plant 64:17–28Google Scholar
  2. Chapin FS III, Schulze ED, Mooney HA (1990) The ecology and economics of storage in plants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 21:423–447Google Scholar
  3. Cyr DR, Bewley JD (1990) Seasonal variation in nitrogen storage reserves in the roots of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and responses to decapitation and defoliation. Physiol Plant 78:361–366Google Scholar
  4. Ellenberg H (1978) Vegetation Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen in ökologischer Sicht. Ulmer, Stuttgart pp 982Google Scholar
  5. Fichtner K, Schulze ED (1992) The effect of nitrogen nutrition on growth and biomass partitioning of annual plants originating from habitats of different nitrogen availability. Oecologia 92:236–241Google Scholar
  6. Handel E van (1967) Determination of fructose and fructoseyielding carbohydrates with cold anthrone. Anal Biochem 19:193–194Google Scholar
  7. Heilmeier H, Schulze ED, Whale DM (1986) Carbon and nitrogen partitioning in the biennial monocarp Arctium tomentosum Mill. Oecologia (Berlin) 70:466–474Google Scholar
  8. Ingestad T, Agren GI (1992) Theories and methods on plant nutrition and growth. Physiol Plant 84:177–184Google Scholar
  9. Jong TJ de, Klinkhamer PGL, Nell HW, Troelstra SR (1987) Growth and nutrient accumulation of the biennials Cirsium vulgare and Cynoglossum officinale under nutrient rich conditions. Oikos 48:62–72Google Scholar
  10. Lambers H, Freijsen N, Poorter H, Hirose T, Wef A van der (1989) Analyses of growth based on net assimilation rate and nitrogen productivity. Their physiological background. In: Lambers H, Cambridge ML, Konings H, Pons TL (eds), Causes and consequences of variation in growth rate and productivity of higher plants. SPB Academic Publishing by The Hague, Netherlands. pp 1–17Google Scholar
  11. Meusel H (1952) Über Wuchsform, Verbreitung und Phylogenie einiger mediterranmitteleuropäischer Angiospermen-Gattungen. Flora 139:333–393Google Scholar
  12. Meusel H, Kästner A (1990) Lebensgeschichte der Gold- und Silberdisteln. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Math-Naturwiss.Klasse Bd 127:1–194Google Scholar
  13. Millard P (1988) The accumulation and storage of nitrogen by herbaceous plants. Plant Cell Environm 11:1–8Google Scholar
  14. Mossé J (1990) Nitrogen to protein conversion factor for ten cereals and six legumes or Oilseeds. A reappraisal of its definition and determination. Variation according to species and to seed protein content. J Agric Food Chem 38:18–24Google Scholar
  15. Orians HG, Solbrig OT (1977) A cost-income model of leaves and roots with special reference to arid and semiarid areas. Am Nat 111:677–690Google Scholar
  16. SAS Institute Inc (1985) SAS/STAT User's Guide: Statistics, Version 5 edition. Cary, N.C.: SAS Institute IncGoogle Scholar
  17. Schurr U, Gebauer G (1990) Aminosäureanalyse mit OPA-Vorsäulenderivatisierung. Kontron HausmitteilungenGoogle Scholar
  18. Strauch L (1965) Ultramikro-Methode zur Bestimmung des Stickstoffs in biologischem Material. Z Klin Chem 3:165–167Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Steinlein
    • 1
  • H. Heilmeier
    • 1
  • E.-D. Schulze
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl PflanzenökologieUniversität BayreuthBayreuthGermany

Personalised recommendations