, Volume 90, Issue 3, pp 353–358 | Cite as

Interspecific variation in desiccation survival time of Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquito eggs is correlated with habitat and egg size

  • T. Sota
  • M. Mogi
Original Papers


Survival times of eggs under three humidity conditions (42%, 68%, 88% RH) were investigated among Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes from temperate and tropical zones (5 species and 20 geographical strains). This subgenus tends to occupy small aquatic sites as larvae, where desiccation resistance of eggs is necessary during habitat drought. Interspecific comparison showed that the egg survival time was correlated with egg volume and dryness of source locality, and probably with habitat. Aedes aegypti is associated most with arid climate and human-disturbed habitats — its large eggs survived the longest periods at all humidities. Aedes albopictus ranges from tropics to temperate zones and inhabits both disturbed and forest habitats — its eggs were less desiccation-resistant than A. aegypti eggs. The survival times for forest species eggs (A. riversi, A. galloisi, A. flavopictus) were variable at high humidities but at the lowest humidity were consistently shorter than for eggs of A. aegypti and A. albopictus.

Key words

Mosquito egg Survival time Desiccation tolerance Climatic adaptation Habitat selection 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Black WC, Rai KS, Turco BJ, Arroyo DC (1989) Laboratory study of competition between United States strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 26:260–271Google Scholar
  2. Bradshaw WE, Holzapfel CM (1988) Drought and the organization of tree-hole mosquito communities. Oecologia 74:507–514Google Scholar
  3. Chan KL, Chan C, Ho BC (1971) Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Singapore City. 4. Competition between species. Bull WHO 44:643–649Google Scholar
  4. Christophers SR (1960) Aedes aegypti (L.), the Yellow Fever Mosquito, its life history, bionomics and structure. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Clark AG, Doane WW (1983) Desiccation tolerance of the adipose 60 mutant of Drosophila melanogaster. Hereditas 99:165–175Google Scholar
  6. Danks HV (1987) Insect dormancy: an ecological perspective. Biological Survey of Canada, National Museum of Natural Sciences, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  7. Denlinger DL (1986) Dormancy in tropical insects. Annu Rev Entomol 31:239–264Google Scholar
  8. Eshita Y, Kurihara T (1979) Studies on the habitats of Aedes albopictus and Ae. riversi in the southwestern part of Japan. Jpn J Sanit Zool 30:181–185Google Scholar
  9. Fontenille D, Rohdhain F (1989) Biology and distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in Madagascar. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 5:219–225Google Scholar
  10. Foo LC, Lim TW, Lee HL, Fang R (1985) Rainfall, abundance of Aedes aegypti and dengue infection in Selangor, Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Health 16:560–568Google Scholar
  11. Gillett JD (1962) Resistance to desiccation in six strains of the Culex pipiens complex. Mosq News 22:342–345Google Scholar
  12. Gubler DJ (1970) Comparison of reproductive potentials if Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse and Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis Marks. Mosq News 30:201–209Google Scholar
  13. Hawley WA (1985) A high fecundity aedine: factors affecting egg production of the western treehole mosquito, Aedes sierrensis (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 22:220–225Google Scholar
  14. Hawley WA (1988) The biology of Aedes albopictus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc (Suppl) 4:1–39Google Scholar
  15. Hien DS (1975) Biology of Aedes aegypti (L., 1762) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera, Culicidae). I. Resistance of eggs to low humidity. Acta Parasitol Pol 23:395–402Google Scholar
  16. Ho BC, Adam B, Chew L (1989) Interspecific competition among Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Ae. triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae): larval development in mixed cultures. J Med Entomol 26:615–623Google Scholar
  17. Hoffmann AA, Parsons PA (1989) An integrated approach to environmental stress tolerance and life-history variation: desiccation tolerance in Drosophila. Biol J Linn Soc 37:117–136Google Scholar
  18. Hood WG, Tschinkel WR (1990) Desiccation resistance in arboreal and terrestrial ants. Physiol Entomol 15:23–35Google Scholar
  19. Huang YM (1979) The subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the oriental region with keys to the species (Diptera: Culicidae). Contrib Am Entomol Inst (Ann Arbor). 15(6): 1–79Google Scholar
  20. Imai C, Maeda O (1976) Several factors effecting on hatching of Aedes albopictus eggs. Jpn J Sanit Zool 27:367–372Google Scholar
  21. Kingsolver JG (1979) Thermal and hydric aspects of environmental heterogeneity in the pitcher plant mosquito. Ecology 49:357–376Google Scholar
  22. Kira T (1976) Terrestrial ecosystem. Kyoritsu, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  23. Linley JR (1989) Comparative fine structure of the eggs of Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Ae. bahamensis (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 26:510–521Google Scholar
  24. Lounibos LP (1981) Habitat segregation among African treehole mosquitoes. Ecol Entomol 6:129–154Google Scholar
  25. Machado-Allison CE, Craig GB Jr (1972) Geographic variation in resistance to desiccation in Aedes aegypti and A. atropalpus (Diptera: Culicidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 65:542–547Google Scholar
  26. Matsuo K, Yoshida Y, Lien JC (1974) Scanning electron microscopy of mosquitoes. II. The egg surface structure of 13 species of Aedes from Taiwan. J Med Entomol 11:179–188Google Scholar
  27. Mattingly PF (1957) Genetical aspects of the Aedes aegypti problem I. Taxonomy and bionomics. Ann Trop Med Parasit 51:392–408Google Scholar
  28. Miyagi I, Toma T (1980) Studies on the mosquitoes in Yaemama Islands, Japan 5. Notes on the mosquitoes collected in forest areas of Iriomotejima. Jpn J Sanit Zool 31:81–91Google Scholar
  29. Miyagi I, Toma T, Iha S (1983) Studies on the mosquitoes in Yaemama Islands, Japan. 8. On the mosquitoes collected in Yonagunijima. Jpn J Sanit Zool 34:1–6Google Scholar
  30. Mogi M (1990) Further notes on the northern distribution of Aedes (Stegomyia) riversi (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq Syst 22:47–52Google Scholar
  31. Mogi M, Khamboonruang C, Choochote W, Suwanpanit P (1988) Ovitrap surveys of dengue vector mosquitoes in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand: seasonal shifts in relative abundance of Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Med Vet Entomol 2:319–324Google Scholar
  32. Munstermann LE, Wasmuth LM (1985) Aedes aegypti. In: Singh P, Moore RF (eds) Handbook of insect rearing, Vol. 2. Elservier, Amsterdam, pp 7–14Google Scholar
  33. Nasci RS, Hare SG, Willis FC (1989) Interspecific mating between Louisiana strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in the field and laboratory. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 5:416–421Google Scholar
  34. Parsons PA (1974) Genetics of resistance to environmental stresses in Drosophila populations. Annu Rev Genet 7:239–265Google Scholar
  35. Persons PA (1981) Evolutionary ecology of Australian Drosophila: a species analysis. Evol Biol 14:297–350Google Scholar
  36. Rai KS (1991) Aedes albopictus in the Americas. Annu Rev Entomol 36:459–484Google Scholar
  37. Rai KS, Pashley DP, Munstermann LE (1982) Genetics of speciation in Aedes mosquitoes. In: Steiner WWM, Tabachnik WJ, Rai KS, Narang S (eds) Recent developments in the genetics of insect disease vectors. Stripes, Chicago, pp 84–129Google Scholar
  38. SAS Institute (1985) SAS user's guide: statistics, version 5 edition. SAS Institute, Cary, North CarolinaGoogle Scholar
  39. Schultz GW (1989) Cemetery vase breeding of dengue vectors in Manila, Republic of the Philippines. J Mosq Control Assoc 5:508–513Google Scholar
  40. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1967) Statistical methods. 6th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IowaGoogle Scholar
  41. Tauber MJ, Tauber CA, Masaki S (1986) Seasonal adaptations of insects. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (1991) Rika-nenpyo (Chronological scientific tables). Maruzen, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  43. Toma T, Miyagi I (1981) Notes on the mosquitoes collected at forest areas in the northern part of Okinawajima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Jpn J Sanit Zool 32:271–279Google Scholar
  44. Toma T, Miyagi I (1986) The mosquito fauna of the Ryukyu Archipelago with identification keys, pupal descriptions and notes on biology, medical importance and distribution. Mosq Syst 18:1–109Google Scholar
  45. Trpis M (1970) A new bleaching and decalcifying method for general use in zoology. Can J Zool 48:892–893Google Scholar
  46. Trpis M (1972) Dry season survival of Aedes aegypti eggs in various breeding sites in the Dar es Salaam area, Tanzania. Bull WHO 147:433–437Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Sota
    • 1
  • M. Mogi
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Parasitology, Department of MicrobiologySaga Medical SchoolSagaJapan

Personalised recommendations