Advertisement

Oecologia

, Volume 90, Issue 2, pp 172–184 | Cite as

Aquatic arthropod communities in Nepenthes pitchers: the role of niche differentiation, aggregation, predation and competition in community organization

  • M. Mogi
  • H. S. Yong
Original Papers

Summary

The structure and organization of aquatic arthropod communities in Nepenthes ampullaria pitchers were studied at two sites (M in Malacca and K in Kuching) in Malaysia. The communities consisted mainly of aquatic dipteran larvae. Community M was dominated by a filter feeder, Tripteroides tenax, which reached a high density despite a strongly aggregated distribution. Community K had five trophic groups: carrion feeders, filter feeders, detritus feeders, nipping predators and hooking predators, each including multiple species. The summed density of filter feeders in Community K remained much below the level attained by filter feeders in Community M. Niche differentiation within each trophic group with regard to pitcher age and feeding behaviour was not sufficient to allow species coexistence through niche separation alone. Aggregated distributions directly reduced interspecific encounters. Nevertheless, species belonging to the same trophic group commonly shared the same pitcher, because of high occurrence probabilities of dominant species and positive associations between some taxa (due mainly to similar occupancies by pitcher age). Predator coexistence in Community K may have been facilitated by self-limitation of the large predators through intraspecific cannibalism strengthened by aggregation. Prey coexistence, on the other hand, may have relied more on population suppression by predation, especially the selective removal of old instar Tripteroides.

Key words

Community Niche overlap Aggregation Predation Competition 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atkinson WD (1985) Coexistence of Australian rainforest Diptera breeding in fallen fruits. J Anim Ecol 54:507–518Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson WD, Shorrocks B (1981) Competition on a divided and ephemeral resource: a simulation model. J Anim Ecol 50:461–471Google Scholar
  3. Atkinson WD, Shorrocks B (1984) Aggregation of larval Diptera over discrete and ephemeral breeding sites: the implications for coexistence. Am Nat 124:336–351Google Scholar
  4. Barr AR, Chellappah WT (1963) The mosquito fauna of pitcher plants in Singapore. Singapore Med J 4:184–185Google Scholar
  5. Beaver RA (1979a) Biological studies of the fauna of pitcher plants Nepenthes in west Malaysia. Ann Soc Entomol Fr (NS) 15:3–17Google Scholar
  6. Beaver RA (1979b) Fauna and foodwebs of pitcher plants in west Malaysia. Malay Nat J 33:1–10Google Scholar
  7. Beaver RA (1983) The community living in Nepenthes pitcher plants: Fauna and food webs. In: Frank JH, Lounibos LP (eds) Phytotelmata: Terrestrial Plants as Hosts for Aquatic Insect Communities. Plexus, Medford, New Jersey, pp 129–154Google Scholar
  8. Beaver RA (1985) Geographical variation in food web structure in Nepenthes pitcher plants. Ecol Entomol 10:241–248Google Scholar
  9. Bliss CI, Fisher RA (1953) Fitting the negative binomial distribution to biological data and note on the efficient fitting of the negative binomial. Biometrics 9:176–200Google Scholar
  10. Bradshaw WE (1983) Interaction between the mosquito Wyeomyia smithii, the midge Metriocnemus knabi, and their carnivorous host, Sarracenia purpurea. In: Frank JH, Lounibos LP (eds) Phytotelmata: Terrestrial Plants as Hosts for Aquatic Insect Communities. Plexus, Medford, New Jersey, pp 161–189Google Scholar
  11. Bradshaw WE, Holzapfel CM (1983) Predator-mediated, nonequilibrium coexistence of treehole mosquitoes in southeastern North America. Oecologia 57:239–256Google Scholar
  12. Bradshaw WE, Holzapfel CM (1988) Drought and the organization of tree-hole mosquito communities. Oecologia 74:507–514Google Scholar
  13. Chambers RC (1985) Competition and predation among larvae of three species of treehole breeding mosquitoes. In: Lounibos LP, Rey JR, Frank JH (eds) Ecology of Mosquitoes: Proceedings of a Workshop. Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Vero Beach, Florida, pp 25–53Google Scholar
  14. Chan KL (1968) Observations on Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Singapore. Mosq News 28:91–95Google Scholar
  15. Connell JH (1983) On the prevalence and relative importance of interspecific competition: evidence from field experiments. Am Nat 122:661–696Google Scholar
  16. Corbet PS (1985) Prepupal killing behavior in Toxorhynchites brevipalpis: a status report. In: Lounibos LP, ReyJR, Frank JH (eds) Ecology of Mosquitoes: Proceedings of a Workshop. Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Vero Beach, Florida, pp 407–417Google Scholar
  17. Denno RF, Cothran WR (1975) Niche relationships of a guild of necrophagous flies. Ann Entomol Soc Am 68:741–754Google Scholar
  18. Edwards FW (1926) Mosquito notes-VI. Bull Entomol Res 17:101–131Google Scholar
  19. Edwards FW (1930) Notes on exotic chaoborinae, with descriptions of new species (Diptera, Culicidae). Ann Mag Nat Hist (Ser 10) 6:528–540Google Scholar
  20. Evenhuis NL, Steffan WA (1986) Classification of the subgenus Toxorhynchites (Diptera: Culicidae). II. Revision of the Toxorhynchites acaudatus group. J Med Entomol 23:538–574Google Scholar
  21. Frank JH, Lounibos LP (1983) Phytotelmata: Terrestrial Plants as Hosts for Aquatic Insect Communities. Plexus, Medford, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  22. Hairston NG, Smith FE, Slobodkin LB (1960) Community structure, population control, and competition. Am Nat 44:421–425Google Scholar
  23. Hanski I (1981) Coexistence of competitors in patchy environment with and without predation. Oikos 37:306–312Google Scholar
  24. Harbach RE (1977) Comparative and functional morphology of the mandibles of some fourth stage mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Zoomorphologie 87:217–236Google Scholar
  25. Horio M (1991) Biology of nepenthebiont Toxorhynchites klossi in the laboratory. Jpn J Sanit Zool 42:169 (Japanese abstract)Google Scholar
  26. Hurlbert SH (1969) A coefficient of interspecific association. Ecology 50:1–9Google Scholar
  27. Hutchinson GE (1948) Circular causal systems in ecology. Ann New York Acad Sci 50:221–246Google Scholar
  28. Ives AR (1988) Aggregation and the coexistence of competitors. Ann Zool Fenn 25:75–88Google Scholar
  29. Ives AR, May RM (1985) Competition within and between species in a patchy environment: relations between microscopic and macroscopic models. J Theor Biol 115:65–92Google Scholar
  30. Iwao S (1977) Analysis of spatial association between two species based on the interspecies mean crowding. Res Popul Ecol 18:243–260Google Scholar
  31. Kitching RL (1987) A preliminary account of the metazoan food webs in phytotelmata from Sulawesi. Malay Nat J 41:1–12Google Scholar
  32. Kitching RL, Pimm SL (1985) The length of food chains: phytotelmata in Australia and elsewhere. Proc Ecol Soc Aust 14:123–139Google Scholar
  33. Kuno E (1988) Aggregation pattern of individuals and the outcomes of competition within and between species: Differential equation models. Res Popul Ecol 30:107–121Google Scholar
  34. Kurata S (1976) Nepenthes of Mount Kinabalu. Sabah National Parks Trustees, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  35. Lack D (1971) Ecological Isolation in Birds. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee KM, Chan KL (1985) The biology of Dasyhelea ampullariae in monkey cups at Kent Ridge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J Singapore Nat Acad Sci 14:6–14Google Scholar
  37. Linley JR (1988) Laboratory experiments on factors affecting oviposition site selection in Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Diptera: Culicidae), with a report on the occurrence of egg cannibalism. Med Vet Entomol 2:271–277Google Scholar
  38. Lounibos LP (1979) Temporal and spatial distribution, growth, and predatory behaviour of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis (Diptera: Culicidae) on the Kenya coast. J Anim Ecol 48:113–236Google Scholar
  39. Lounibos LP (1983) The mosquito community of treeholes in subtropical Florida. In: Frank JH, Lounibos LP (eds) Phytotelmata: Terrestrial Plants as Hosts for Aquatic Insect Communities. Plexus, Medford, New Jersey, pp 223–246Google Scholar
  40. Lounibos LP (1985) Interactions influencing production of treehole mosquitoes in south Florida. In: Lounibos LP, Rey JR, Frank JH (eds) Ecology of Mosquitoes: Proceedings of a Workshop. Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Vero Beach, Florida, pp 65–77Google Scholar
  41. Lounibos LP, Frank JH, Machado-Allison CE, Ocanto P, Navarro JC (1987) Survival, development and predatory effects of mosquito larvae in Venezuelan phytotelmata. J Trop Ecol 3:221–242Google Scholar
  42. Mattingly F (1981) Medical Entomology Studies-XIV, The subgenera Rachionotomyia, Tricholeptomyia and Tripteroides (Mabinii Group) of Genus Tripteroides in the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae). Contrib Am Entomol Inst 17:1–147Google Scholar
  43. May RM (1973) Stability and Complexity in Model Ecosystems. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  44. McLachlan AJ (1981) Food sources and foraging tactics in tropical rain pools. Zool J Linn Soc 71:265–277Google Scholar
  45. Merritt RW (1987) Do different instars of Aedes triseriatus feed on particles of the same size? J Am Mosq Control Assoc 3:94–96Google Scholar
  46. Mogi M, Horio M, Miyagi I, Cabrera BD (1985) Succession, distribution, overcrowding and predation in the aquatic community in aroid axils, with special references to mosquitoes. In: Lounibos LP, Rey JR, Frank JH (eds) Ecology of Mosquitoes: Proceedings of a Workshop. Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Vero Beach, Florida, pp 95–119Google Scholar
  47. Padgett PD, Focks DA (1981) Prey stage preference of the predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus on Aedes aegypti. Mosq News 41:67–70Google Scholar
  48. Peyton EL (1977) Medical Entomology Studies-X, A revision of the subgenus Pseudoficalbia of the genus Uranotaenia in southeast Asia (Diptera: Culicidae). Contrib Am Entomol Inst 14:1–273Google Scholar
  49. Ramalingam S, Ramakrishnan K (1971) Redescription of Aedes (Alanstonea) brevitibia (Edwards) from Brunei, Borneo (Diptera: Culicidae). Proc Entomol Soc Wash 73:231–238Google Scholar
  50. Rathcke BJ (1976) Competition and coexistence within a guild of herbivorous insects. Ecology 57:76–87Google Scholar
  51. Robinson H, Vockeroth JR (1981) Dolichopodidae. In: Manual of Nearctic Diptera 1. Canad Govern Publ Centre, Hull, Quebec, pp 625–639Google Scholar
  52. Ross HH (1957) Principles of natural coexistence indicated by leafhopper populations. Evolution 11:113–129Google Scholar
  53. Schoener TW (1983) Field experiments on interspecific competition. Am Nat 122:240–285Google Scholar
  54. Shorrocks B, Atkinson W, Charlesworth P (1979) Competition on a divided and ephemeral resource. J Anim Ecol 48:899–908Google Scholar
  55. Shorrocks B, Rosewell J, Edwards K (1984) Interspecific competition is not a major organizing force in many insect communities. Nature 310:310–312Google Scholar
  56. Sih A, Crowley P, McPeek M, Petranka J, Strohmeier K (1985) Predation, competition, and prey communities: a review of field experiments. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 16:269–311Google Scholar
  57. Sirivanakarn S (1977) Medical Entomology Studies-VI, A revision of the subgenus Lophoceraomyia of the genus Culex in the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae). Contrib Am Entomol Inst 13(4):1–245Google Scholar
  58. Sokal RR, Braumann CA (1980) Significance tests for coefficients of variation and variability profiles. Syst Zool 29:50–66Google Scholar
  59. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1981) Biometry 2nd edn. W.H. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  60. Southwood TRE (1978) Ecological Methods 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  61. Teskey HJ (1981) Morphology and Terminology — Larvae. In: Manual of Nearctic Diptera 1. Canad Govern Publ Centre, Hull, Quebec, pp 65–88Google Scholar
  62. Teskey HJ, Merritt RW, Schlinger EI (1984) Aquatic Diptera. In: Merritt RW, Cummins KW (eds) An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America 2nd edn. Kendall Hunt, Dubuque, Iowa, pp 448–490Google Scholar
  63. Thienemann A (1932) Die Tierwelt der Nepenthes-Kannen. Arch Hydrobiol Suppl 11:1–54Google Scholar
  64. Yap HH, Foo AES (1984) Laboratory studies on the oviposition site preference of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 21:183–187Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Mogi
    • 1
  • H. S. Yong
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Parasitology, Department of MicrobiologySaga Medical SchoolSagaJapan
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations