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Oecologia

, Volume 94, Issue 3, pp 451–456 | Cite as

Long-term competitive displacement of Typha latifolia by Typha angustifolia in a eutrophic lake

  • Stefan E. B. Weiner
Original Papers

Abstract

This study follows the outcome of long-term competition between a broad-leaved and a narrowleaved Typha species, T. latifolia and T. angustifolia respectively, in a eutrophic lake. The lake was bordered by a zone of T. latifolia, at one location interrupted by a T. angustifolia stand. Distributional changes of the T. angustifolia stand and the adjacent zone of T. latifolia were measured on aerial photographs (≤13 years) and along ground-level transects (6 years). A second stand of T. angustifolia was established with transplanted ramets within a formerly homogeneous zone of T. latifolia, and displacement between the two species was measured along ground-level transects after 6 years. Differences between the species in shoot performance were investigated to help explain the relative competitive abilities of the two Typha species. T. angustifolia expanded at the expense of T. latifolia at all water depths where both species occurred, except in very shallow water. Expansion rates suggest that T. angustifolia was not affected by the presence of T. latifolia in water depths exceeding 0.25 m. The Typha species were significantly negatively associated according to rank correlations of shoot densities, and changes of shoot densities, along the transects. These results suggest that T. angustifolia is competitively superior to T. latifolia, contradicting earlier studies. The higher competitive ability of T. angustifolia is consistent with its having taller shoots and a higher standing crop in early summer. Further, shoot height distributions indicated a closer integration of shoot emergence during spring in T. angustifolia than in T. latifolia. A high leaf area/shoot weight ratio suggest that T. latifolia may instead be relatively fast-growing, achieving competitive superiority over narrower-leaved Typha species during a transient period after simultaneous seedling establishment.

Key words

Typha Emergent macrophytes Competitive abilities Succession Plant strategies 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan E. B. Weiner
    • 1
  1. 1.Limnology, Department of EcologyLund UniversityLundSweden

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