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Oecologia

, Volume 99, Issue 1–2, pp 124–131 | Cite as

Improvement of photosynthesis in zooxanthellate corals by autofluorescent chromatophores

  • D. Schlichter
  • U. Meier
  • H. W. Fricke
Original Paper

Abstract

Autofluorescent chromatophores were detected in 17 out of 71 zooxanthellate coral species studied. Chromatophores are localized either in the oral gastrodermic (endoderm) or oral epidermis (ectoderm). The pigment granules within the chromatophores (0.5–1.0 μm in diameter) show a brilliant light-blue/turquoise autofluorescence (emission between 430 and 500 nm) after excitation with light of 365–410 nm. All species where the autofluorescent gastrodermal chromatophores form a compact layer, embedding the zooxanthellae, belong to the family Agariciidae. In contrast, some species of the Faviidae (2), Pectiniidae (1) and Mussidae (1) were found to have distinct, autofluorescent chromatophores in the oral epidermis. Autofluorescent pigments of the host may enhance photosynthesis of the symbionts as in Leptoseris fragilis. Short wavelength irradiance, less suitable for photosynthesis, is transformed by host pigments into longer wavelengths which are photosynthetically more effective. Thus, host species possessing autofluorescent chromatophores might have selective advantage over non-fluorescent species, and have the potential to survive in light-limited habitats. Furthermore, the daily period of photosynthesis is extended, thus increasing the energy supply and enhancing the deposition of skeletal carbonate. The absence or presence of chromatophores may have value in taxonomy and could putatively be of plalaeontological and palaeoecological interest.

Key words

Autofluorescent chromatophores Light transformation Phototrophy Reef Zooxanthellate corals 

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Copyright information

© Springer Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Schlichter
    • 1
  • U. Meier
    • 1
  • H. W. Fricke
    • 2
  1. 1.Zoologisches InstitutUniversität zu KölnKöln 41Germany
  2. 2.Max-Planck Institut für VerhaltensphysiologieSeewiesenGermany

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