Oecologia

, Volume 99, Issue 1–2, pp 72–78 | Cite as

The influence of ant attendance on larval parasitism in hawthorn psyllids (Homoptera: Psyllidae)

  • Hans Novak
Original Paper

Abstract

The influence of ant attendance on parasitization of the larvae of three hawthorn psyllid species [Cacopsylla peregrina Förster, C. melanoneura Förster, C. crataegi (Schrank)] was studied over 2 years. All three psyllid species had low parasitization rates. However, the ant-attended C. crataegi was almost exclusively parasitized by Prionomitus mitratus (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) while the unattended C. peregrina and C. melanoneura were predominantly attacked by P. tiliaris (Dalman). Additionally, C. peregrina and C. melanoneura has significantly higher hyperparasitization rates than the ant-attended C. crataegi, with Pachyneuron muscarum as the dominant hyperparasitoid of all three psyllids. The mummies of C. peregrina and C. melanoneura were also heavily attacked by anthocorids. Both Prionomitus tiliaris and P. mitratus were disturbed and jumped away when encountering foraging ants. However, ant exclusion experiments showed that the primary parasitoid P. mitratus benefitted from ant attendance of its host C. crataegi as honeydew-collecting ants provided it with protection from hyperparasitoids.

Key words

Psyllidae Ant-psyllid-mutualism Parasitism Predation Enemy-free space 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Addicott JF (1979) A multispecies aphid-ant association: density dependence and species-specific effects. Can J Zool 57:558–569Google Scholar
  2. Al-Rawy MA, Kaddou IK, Stary P (1969) Predation of Chrysopa carnea Steph. on mummified aphids and its possible significance in population regulation (Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Homoptera). Bull Biol Res Centre Baghdad 4:30–40Google Scholar
  3. Armand E, Lyoussoufi A, Rieux R (1991) Evolution du complexe parasitaire des psylles du poirier Psylla pyri et Psylla pyrisuga (Homoptera: Psyllidae) en vergers dans le sud-est de la France au cours de la periode hivernale, printaniere et estivale. Entomophaga 36:287–294Google Scholar
  4. Banks CJ (1962) Effects of the ant Lasius niger on insects preying on small populations of Aphis fabae Scop. on bean plants. Ann Appl Biol 50:669–679Google Scholar
  5. Banks CJ, Nixon HL (1958) Effects of the ant Lasius niger L. on the feeding and excretion of the bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scop.. J Exp Biol 35:703–711Google Scholar
  6. Barlett BR (1961) The influence of ants upon parasites, predators and scale insects. Ann Entomol Soc Am 54:543–551Google Scholar
  7. Boucek Z (1981) A biological solution to the identity of a Linnaean chalcid wasp (Hymenoptera). Entomol Gaz 32:18–20Google Scholar
  8. Breton LM, Addicott JF (1992) Density-dependent mutualism in an aphid-ant interaction. Ecology 73:2175–2180Google Scholar
  9. Bristow CM (1984) Differential benefits from ant attendance to two species of Homoptera on New York ironweed. J Anim Ecol 53:715–726Google Scholar
  10. Buckley RC (1987) Interactions involving plants, Homoptera and ants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 18:111–135Google Scholar
  11. Catling HD (1969) The bionomics of the South African citrus psylla, Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio) (Homoptera: Psyllidae) 2. The influence of parasites and notes on the species involved. J Entomol Soc S Afr 32:209–223Google Scholar
  12. Chermiti B, Hawlitzky N, Boulay C, Onillon JC (1986) Quelques caracteristiques du developpement de l'endoparasite Psyllaephagus euphyllurae (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) et exploitation de son hôte Euphyllura olivina (Homoptera, Psyllidae). Entomophaga 31:351–361Google Scholar
  13. Clark LR (1962) The general biology of Cardiaspina albitextura (Psyllidae) and its abundance in relation to weather and parasitism. Aust J Zool 10:537–586Google Scholar
  14. Cushman JH, Whitham TG (1989) Conditional mutualism in a membracid-ant associaton: temporal, age-specific, and density-dependent effects. Ecology 70:1040–1047Google Scholar
  15. Degen AA, Gersani M, Avivi Y, Weisbrot N (1986) Honeydew intake of the weaver ant Polyrhachis simplex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) attending the aphid Chaitophorous populialbae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Insectes Soc 33:211–215Google Scholar
  16. Dixon AFG (1985) Aphid ecology, Blackie, GlasgowGoogle Scholar
  17. Dixon AFG, Russell RJ (1972) The effectiveness of Anthocoris nemorum and A. confusus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) as predators of the sycamore aphid, Drepanosiphum platanoides. Entomol Exp Appl 15:35–50Google Scholar
  18. Domenichini G (1966) La Psylla melanoneura Foerster (Homoptera) nel Nord Italia. Boll Zool Agrar Bachic Ser II 8:169–180Google Scholar
  19. Ferriere C (1961) Encyrtides palearctiques parasites de psylles. Entomophaga 6:39–51Google Scholar
  20. Herard F (1986) Annotated list of the entomophagous complex associated with pear psylla, Psylla pyri (L.) (Hom.: Psyllidae) in France. Agronomie 6:1–34Google Scholar
  21. Herzig J (1937) Ameisen und Blattläuse. Z Angew Entomol 24:367–435Google Scholar
  22. Hodkinson ID (1974) The biology of the Psylloidea (Homoptera): a review. Bull Entomol Res 64:325–339Google Scholar
  23. Hodkinson ID, White IM (1979) Homoptera, Psylloidea (Handbook for identification of British insects vol 2, part 5a). Royal Entomological Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Jackson CSJ (1988) Studies on the ecology of psyllids (Homoptera: Psylloidea) feeding on hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). Unpublished CNAA thesis, Liverpool Polytechnic, U.K.Google Scholar
  25. Jeffries MJ, Lawton JH (1984) Enemy-free space and the structure of ecological communities. Biol J Linn Soc 23:269–286Google Scholar
  26. Jensen DD (1957) Parasites of the Psyllidae. Hilgardia 27:71–99Google Scholar
  27. Lal KB (1934a) The biology of Scottish Psyllidae. Trans R Entomol Soc London 82:363–385Google Scholar
  28. Lal KB (1934b) Insect parasites of Psyllidae. Parasitology 26:325–334Google Scholar
  29. Lippert W (1978) Zur Gliederung und Verbreitung der Gattung Crataegus in Bayern. Ber Bayer Bot Ges 49:165–198Google Scholar
  30. Lopez ER, Van Driesche RG (1989) Direct measurement of host and parasitoid recruitment for assessment of total losses due to parasitism in a continuously breeding species, the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Bull Entomol Res 79:47–59Google Scholar
  31. Missonnier J (1956) Note sur la biologie du psylle de l'aubepine (Psylla peregrina F.). Ann Epiphyt 7:253–262Google Scholar
  32. Nguyen TX, Delvare G (1981) Cycle biologique et utilisation successive de differents hotes (Homopteres-Psyllidae) par Prionomitus mitratus Dalman 1820 (Hymenopter-Encyrtidae). Bull Soc Hist Nat Toulouse 117:146–153Google Scholar
  33. Novak H (1992) Untersuchungen über Produktion und Konsum von Honigtau in Hecken Oberfrankens. Anz Schädlingsk, Pflanzensch Umweltsch 65:41–48Google Scholar
  34. Rosen D, Kfir R (1983) A hyperparasite of coccids develops as a primary parasite of fly puparia. Entomophaga 28:83–87Google Scholar
  35. Stary P (1966) Aphid parasites (Hym., Aphidiidae) and their relationship to aphid attending ants, with respect to biological control. Insectes Soc 13:185–202Google Scholar
  36. Stary P (1987) Aphid-ant-parasitoid association on the creeping thistle, Cirsium arvense, in agreocosystems in Czechoslovakia. Acta Entomol Bohem 84:15–21Google Scholar
  37. Stechmann DH, Bauer G, Dreyer W, Heusinger G, Zwölfer H (1981) Die Erfassung der Entomofauna von Heckenpflanzen (Wildrose, Schlehe, Weibdorn) mit Hilfe der Klopfprobenmethode. Mitt Dtsch Ges Allg Angew Entomol 3:12–16Google Scholar
  38. Sudd JH (1987) Ant aphid mutualism. In: Minks AK, Harrewijn P (eds) Aphids: Their biology, natural enemies and control, vol 2A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 355–365Google Scholar
  39. Sutton RD (1984) The effect of host plant flowering on the distribution and growth of hawthorn psyllids (Homoptera: Psylloidea). J Anim Ecol 53:37–50Google Scholar
  40. Takada H, Hashimoto Y (1985) Association of the root aphid parasitoids Aclitus sappaphis and Paralipsis eikoae (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae) with the aphid-attending ants Pheidole fervida and Lasius niger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Kontyu 53:150–160Google Scholar
  41. Tilles DA, Wood DL (1982) The influence of carpenter ant (Camponotus modoc) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) attendance on the development and survival of aphids (Cinara spp.) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in a giant sequoia forest. Can Entomol 114:1133–1142Google Scholar
  42. Trjapitzin VA (1989) Parasitic Hymenoptera of the Palaearctic family Encyrtidae. LeningradGoogle Scholar
  43. Van Driesche RG (1983) Meaning of ‘percent parasitism’ in studies of insect parasitoids. Environ Entomol 12:1611–1622Google Scholar
  44. Völkl W (1990) Fortpflanzungsstrategien bei Blattlausparasitoiden (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae): Konsequenzen ihrer Interaktionen mit Wirten und Ameisen. Ph.D. thesis, University of BayreuthGoogle Scholar
  45. Völkl W (1992) Aphids or their parasitoids: who actually benefits from ant attendance? J Anim Ecol 61:273–281Google Scholar
  46. Völkl W, Mackauer M (1993) Interactions between ants attending Aphis fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis on thistles and foraging parasitoid wasps. J Insect Behav 6:301–312Google Scholar
  47. Way M (1963) Mutualism between ants and honeydew producing Homoptera. Annu Rev Entomol 8:307–344Google Scholar
  48. Zoebelein G (1956) Der Honigtau als Nahrung der Insekten. Z Angew Entomol 38:369–416Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Novak
    • 1
  1. 1.Departent of Animal Ecology IUniversity of BayreuthBayreuthGermany

Personalised recommendations