Marine Geophysical Researches

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 401–418 | Cite as

Near bottom magnetic profile across the Red Sea

  • Stephen P. Miller
  • Ken C. Macdonald
  • Peter F. Lonsdale
Article

Abstract

Results are presented from a high precision geophysical profile made at an altitude of about 100 m above the sea floor with the Deep Two instrument package, crossing the Red Sea at 17°30′N. The emphasis is on the analysis and interpretation of the magnetic field, including an inversion which removes the distortions due to bathymetry and the orientation with respect to the earth's main field vector. The spreading rates are determined precisely and found to be highly asymmetric: only 5 mm yr-1 to the east and up to 10 mm yr-1 to the west. We conclude that the axis of spreading is located on a volcanic ridge, rather than on the axial graben, based on the presence of a zone of high magnetization. The magnetization high (40 Am-1) is about twice as great as found on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the same instrument and analysis. The quality of the recording of the magnetic anomalies in the oceanic crust is much greater than expected for such a low spreading rate.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atwater T. M. and Mudie J. D.: 1973, ‘Detailed Near-Bottom Geophysical Study of the Gorda Rise’, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8665–8686.Google Scholar
  2. Bäcker H., Lange K., and Richter H.: 1975, ‘Morphology of the Red Sea Central Graben between Subair Islands and Abul Kizaan’, Geol. Jahrb. D 13, 79–123.Google Scholar
  3. Borchert, H. and Muir, R. O.: 1964, Salt Deposits, D. Van Nostrand Co.Google Scholar
  4. Brown C. and Girdler R. W.: 1982, ‘Structure of the Red Sea at 20°N from Gravity Data and its Implications for Continental Margins’, Nature 298, 52–54.Google Scholar
  5. Coleman R. G.: 1974, ‘Geological Background of the Red Sea’, DSDP 23, 813–820.Google Scholar
  6. Darracott B. W., Fairhead J. D., Girdler R. W., and Hall S. H.: 1973, ‘The East African Rift System’, in D. H.Tarling and S. K.Runcorn (eds.), Implications of Continental Drift to the Earth Sciences, New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. Davis D. and Tramothini C.: 1970, ‘The Deep Structure of the Red Sea’, Phil Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., A., 267, 181–189.Google Scholar
  8. Drake C. L. and Girdler R. W.: 1964. ‘A Geophysical Study of the Red Sea’, Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc. 8, 473–495Google Scholar
  9. Fox P. J. and Gallo D. G.: 1984, ‘A Tectonic Model for Ridge-Transform-Ridge Plate Boundaries: Implications for the Structure of Oceanic Lithosphere’, Tectonophysics 104, 205–242.Google Scholar
  10. Gass I. G.: 1977, ‘The Age and Extent of the Red Sea Oceanic Crust’, Nature 265, 722–724.Google Scholar
  11. Girdler R. W.: 1970, ‘A Review of Red Sea Heat Flow’, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., A., 267, 191–203.Google Scholar
  12. Girdler, R. W. and Whitmarsh, 1974, ‘Miocene Evaporites in Red Sea Cores, Their Relevance to the Problem of Width and Age of Oceanic Crust Beneath the Red Sea’, in R. B. Whitmarsh, O. E. Weser, D. A. Ross et al., (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Projects 23, 913–921.Google Scholar
  13. Girdler R. W., and Styles P.: 1974, ‘Two Stage Red Sea Floor Spreading’, Nature 247, 7–11.Google Scholar
  14. Heard H. C.: 1972, ‘Steady-State Flow in Polycrystalline Halite at Pressure of 2 Kilobars’, Am. Geophys. Union Monograph 16, 191–209.Google Scholar
  15. Hey R. N.: 1977, ‘A New Class of Pseudo-Faults and Their Bearing on Plate Tectonics: A New Propagating Rift Model’, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 37, 321–325.Google Scholar
  16. Huestis S. P. and Parker R. L.: 1979, ‘Upward and Downward Continuation as Inverse Problems’, Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc. 57, 171–188.Google Scholar
  17. Johnson H. P. and Merrill R. T.: 1978, ‘A Direct Test of the Vine-Matthews Hypothesis’, Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 40, 263–269.Google Scholar
  18. Kabbani F. K.: 1970, ‘Geophysical and Structural Aspects of the Central Red Sea Rift Valley’, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., A., 267, 89–97.Google Scholar
  19. Klitgord K. D., Huestis S. P., Parker R. L., and Mudie J. D.: 1975, ‘An Analysis of Near-Bottom Magnetic Anomalies: Seafloor Spreading, and Magnetized Layer, and the Geomagnetic Time Scale’, Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc. 43, 387–424.Google Scholar
  20. Larson R. L.: 1971, ‘Near-Bottom Geophysical Studies of the East Pacific Rise Crest’, Geol. Soc. of Am. Bull., 82, 823–842.Google Scholar
  21. LePichon X. and Hayes D. E.: 1971, ‘Marginal Offsets, Fracture Zones and the Early Opening of the South Atlantic’, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 6283–6293.Google Scholar
  22. LePichon X. and Fracheteau J.: 1978, ‘A Plate-Tectonic Analysis of the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden Area’, Tectonophysics 46, 369–406.Google Scholar
  23. Loncarevic B. D. and Parker R. L.: 1971, ‘The Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 45°N, 17, Magnetic Anomalies and Seafloor Spreading’, Can. J. of Earth Sci. 8, 883–898.Google Scholar
  24. Lowell J. D. and Genik G. J.: 1972, ‘Sea-Floor Spreading and Structural Evolution of Southern Red Sea’, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull. 56, 247–259.Google Scholar
  25. Macdonald K. C.: 1982, ‘Mid-Ocean Ridges: Fine-Scale Tectonic, Volcanic and Hydrothermal Processes’, Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences 10, 155–190.Google Scholar
  26. Macdonald, K. C.: ‘The Crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Models for Crustal Generation Processes and Tectonics’, in Decade of North American Geology, Geological Society of America, (in press).Google Scholar
  27. Macdonald K. C., Miller S. P., Luyendyk B. P., Atwater T. M., and Shure L.: 1983, ‘Investigation of a Vine-Matthews Magnetic Lineation from a Submersible: The Source and Character of Marine Magnetic Anomalies’, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3403–3418.Google Scholar
  28. Macdonald K. C., Miller, Huestis S. P., and Spiess F. N.: 1980, ‘Three-Dimensional Modeling of a Magnetic Reversal Boundary from Inversion of Deep-Tow Measurements’, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 3670–3680.Google Scholar
  29. Macdonald K. C. and Luyendyk B. P.: 1977, ‘Deep-Tow Studies of the Structure of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Crest near lat. 37° N′, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 88, 621–636.Google Scholar
  30. Macdonald K. C.: 1977, ‘Near-Bottom Magnetic Anomalies, Asymmetric Spreading, Oblique Spreading and Tectonics of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near lat 37°N′, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 88, 541–555.Google Scholar
  31. McKenzie D. P., Davies D., and Molnar P.: 1970, ‘Plate Tectonics of the Red Sea and East Africa’, Nature 226, 243–248.Google Scholar
  32. Monin A. S., Litvin V. M., Podrazhansky A. M., Sagalevich A. M., Sorokhtin O. G., Voitov V. I., Yastrebov V. S., and Zonenshain L. P.: 1982, ‘Red Sea Submersible Research Expedition’, Deep Sea Res. 29, 361–373.Google Scholar
  33. Ness G., Levi S., Couch R.: 1980, ‘Marine Magnetic Anomaly Timescales for the Cenozoic and Late Cretaceous: A Precis, Critique and Synthesis’, Rev. Geophysics and Space Physics 18, 757–770.Google Scholar
  34. Parker R. L.: 1972, ‘Magnetic Upward Continuation from an Uneven Track’, Geophysics 37, 662–668.Google Scholar
  35. Parker R. L.: 1972, ‘The Rapid Calculation of Potential Anomalies’, Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc. 31, 447–455.Google Scholar
  36. Parker R. L.: 1977, ‘Understanding Inverse Theory’, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 5, 35–64.Google Scholar
  37. Parker R. L. and Huestis S. P.: 1974, ‘The Inversion of Magnetic Anomalies in the Presence of Topography’, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 1587–1593.Google Scholar
  38. Phillips J. D.: 1970, ‘Magnetic Anomalies in the Red Sea’, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., A., 267, 502–217.Google Scholar
  39. Rea D. K. and Blakely R. J.: 1975, ‘Short-Wavelength Anomalies in a Region of Rapid Seafloor Spreading, Nature 255, 126–128.Google Scholar
  40. Roeser H. A.: 1975, ‘A Detailed Magnetic Survey of the Southern Red Sea’, Geol. Jahrb. D, 13, 131–153.Google Scholar
  41. Ross D. A., and Schlee J.: 1973, ‘Shallow Structure and Geologic Development of the Southern Red Sea’, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 84, 3287–3848.Google Scholar
  42. Schouten J. A.: 1971, ‘A Fundamental Analysis of Magnetic Anomalies over Oceanic Ridges’, Marine Geophys. Res. 1, 111–144.Google Scholar
  43. Searle R. C. and Ross D. A.: 1975, ‘A Geophysical Study of the Red Sea Axial Trough Between 20.5° and 22°N, Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc. 43, 555–572.Google Scholar
  44. Shreyder A. A., Trukhin V. I., Sychev V. A., and Rimskiy-Korsakov N. A.: 1982, ‘Detailed Geomagnetic Studies of the Rift Zone in the South of the Red Sea’, Oceanol. 22, 325–330.Google Scholar
  45. Spiess, F. N., Lowenstein, C., and Boegeman, D. E.: 1978, ‘Fine-Grained Deep Ocean Survey Techniques’, Proceedings of Offshore Tech. Conf., Houston, Texas, pp. 715–725.Google Scholar
  46. Stoffers P. and Kühn R.: 1974, ‘Red Sea Evaporites; A Petrographic and Geochemical Study’, DSDP 23, 821–848.Google Scholar
  47. Tramontini C. and Davies D.: 1969, ‘A Seismic Refraction Survey in the Red Sea, Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc. 17, 225–241.Google Scholar
  48. Whitmarsh R. B., Ross D. A., Ali S., Boudreaux J. E., Coleman R., Fleisher R. L., Girdler R. W., Manheim F. T., Matter A., Nigrini C., Stoffers P., and Supko P. R. 1974, ‘Site 225’, DSDP 23, 539–594.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen P. Miller
    • 1
  • Ken C. Macdonald
    • 1
  • Peter F. Lonsdale
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geological Sciences and Marine Science InstituteUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraU.S.A.
  2. 2.Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institute of OceanographyUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations