Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 55–58 | Cite as

Synthetic surfactants: A new approach to the development of shark repellents

  • Eliahu Zlotkin
  • Samuel H. Gruber
Original Investigations


The toxic and shark repellent secretion of Pardachirus marmoratus (PMC) and a series of 15 surfactants and industrial detergents were assayed for their lethality to fish, termination of shark's tonic immobility and feeding inhibition of aggressive, hungry lemon sharks. Sodium and lithium lauryl sulfate salts were more potent than PMC in all three bioassays. Graduated activity, from mildly repellent to inactive, was demonstrated by several other surfactants. The abundance, versatility, chemical stability, modifiability, and low price of detergents justify their use in further development of effective shark repellents.

Key words

Shark repellents Surfactants Lemon shark Pardachirus flat fish 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eliahu Zlotkin
    • 1
  • Samuel H. Gruber
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Rosentiel School of Marine and Atmospheric ScienceUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA

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