Advertisement

Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 55–58 | Cite as

Synthetic surfactants: A new approach to the development of shark repellents

  • Eliahu Zlotkin
  • Samuel H. Gruber
Original Investigations

Abstract

The toxic and shark repellent secretion of Pardachirus marmoratus (PMC) and a series of 15 surfactants and industrial detergents were assayed for their lethality to fish, termination of shark's tonic immobility and feeding inhibition of aggressive, hungry lemon sharks. Sodium and lithium lauryl sulfate salts were more potent than PMC in all three bioassays. Graduated activity, from mildly repellent to inactive, was demonstrated by several other surfactants. The abundance, versatility, chemical stability, modifiability, and low price of detergents justify their use in further development of effective shark repellents.

Key words

Shark repellents Surfactants Lemon shark Pardachirus flat fish 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Carli G (1977) Animal hypnosis in the rabbit. Psychol Res 1:123–143Google Scholar
  2. Clark E (1974) Red Seas' shark proof fish. Natl Geog 146:718–728Google Scholar
  3. Clark E (1983) Shark repellent effect of the Red Sea Moses sole. In: Zahuranec B (ed) Shark repellents from the sea. AAAS Selected Symposium 83. Westview Press, Boulder, pp 135–150Google Scholar
  4. Clark E, Chao S (1973) A toxic secretion from the Red sea flatfish Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepede). Sea Fish Res Stn Haifa Bull 60:53–56Google Scholar
  5. Elworthy PH, Florence HT, MacFarlane CB (1968) Solubilization by surface active agents. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Gruber SH (1980) Keeping sharks in captivity. J Aquaricult 1: 6–14Google Scholar
  7. Gruber SH (1983) Shark repellents: Protocols for a behavioral bioassay. In: Zahuranec J (ed) Shark repellents from the sea. AAAS Selected Symposium 83. Westview Press, Boulder, pp 91–113Google Scholar
  8. Gruber SH, Myrberg AA Jr (1977) Approaches to the study of the behavior of sharks. Am Zool 17:471–486Google Scholar
  9. Johnson CS (1963) Anti-shark devices and testing methods at naval undersea center. In: Seaman W Jr (ed) Sharks and man. Seagrant Report No. 10. Gainesville, Florida, p 17 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  10. Pal R, Barenholz Y, Wagner RR (1981) Transcription of vesicular stomatitis virus activated by Pardaxin, a fish toxin that permilize the viron membrane. J Virol 39:641–645Google Scholar
  11. Parness J, Zlotkin E (1976) Action of the toxic secretion of the flat fish Pardachirus marmoratus on the guinea pig ileum. Toxicon 14: 85–91Google Scholar
  12. Primor N, Zlotkin E (1975) On the ichthyotoxic and hemolytic action of the skin secretion of the flat fish Pardachirus marmoratus (Soleidae). Toxicon 13: 227–231Google Scholar
  13. Primor N, Sabnay I, Lavie V, Zlotkin E (1980) Toxicity of fish, effect on gill ATPase and gill ultrastructural changes induced by Pardachirus secretion and its derived toxin paradaxin. J Exp Zool 211: 33–43Google Scholar
  14. Reed LY, Muench H (1938) A simple method for estimating fifty percent end points. Am J Hyg 27: 493–497Google Scholar
  15. Spira ME, Klein M, Hochner B, Yarom Y, Castel M (1976) Ultrastructural changes accompanying the disturbances of neuromuscular transmission caused by Pardachirus toxin. Neuroscience 1: 117–124Google Scholar
  16. Wallett TS (1972) Shark attack and treatment of victims in Southern African waters. Purnell and Sons, CapetownGoogle Scholar
  17. Zahuranec BJ (1975) Shark research: Present status and future directions. ONR Report, ACT-208, Arlington, VaGoogle Scholar
  18. Zlotkin E, Barenholz Y (1983) On the membranal action of Pardaxin. In: Zahuranec J (ed) Shark repellents from the sea. AAAS Selected Symposium 83. Westview Press, Boulder, pp 157–172Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eliahu Zlotkin
    • 1
  • Samuel H. Gruber
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Rosentiel School of Marine and Atmospheric ScienceUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations